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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Spiralia
Cladus: Lophotrochozoa
Phylum: Sipuncula
Classis: Sipunculidea
Ordines: Sipunculiformes - Golfingiiformes


  • Cutler, Edward B. (1994): The Sipuncula: their systematic, biology and evolution. Comstock Publishing Associates of Cornell University. Ithaca, New York. 406p. ISBN 0-8014-2843-2 Google Book
  • Cutler, Edward B. & Gibbs, Peter E. (1985): A Phylogenetic analysis of higher taxa in the Phylum Sipuncula. Systematic Zoology, 34(2):162-173.
  • Ditadi, A.S.F. & Migotto, A.E. (1982): O Filo Sipuncula. Concelho Nacional de Desemvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico CNPq Brasilia. 43p.
  • Gibbs, Peter E. and Cutler, Edward B. (1987): A classification of the phylum Sipuncula. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Zoology, 52(1):43-58.
  • Schulze, A.; Cutler, E.B.; Giribet, G. 2005: Reconstructing the phylogeny of the Sipuncula. Hydrobiologia, 535/536: 277–296. PDF
  • Schulze, A.; Cutler, E.B.; Giribet, G. 2007: Phylogeny of sipunculan worms: a combined analysis of four gene regions and morphology. Molecular phylogenetics and evolution, 42: 171–192. PDF
  • Schulze, A.; Rice, M.E. 2009: Musculature in sipunculan worms: ontogeny and ancestral states. Evolution & development, 11: 97–108.
  • Stephen, A. C., and. Edmonds S. J. (1972): The Phyla Sipuncula and Echiura. Trustees of The British Museum of Natural History. London. vii+528 ISBN 0-565-00717-3

Vernacular names

español: Gusano cacahuete
日本語: スジホシムシ綱