Pertusaria amara

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Taxonavigation: Pertusariales 

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Fungi
Subregnum: Dikarya
Divisio: Ascomycota
Subdivisio: Pezizomycotina
Classis: Lecanoromycetes
Subclassis: Ostropomycetidae
Ordo: Pertusariales

Familia: Pertusariaceae
Genus: Pertusaria
Species: Pertusaria amara
Varietates: P. a. var. amara – P. a. var. philippinensis
Forma: P. a. f. pulvinata


Pertusaria amara (Ach.) Nyl., 1872

Substratum: On deciduous trees, such as Aesculus, Quercus or conifers, and also occasionally on siliceous rocks in shady places.

  • Variolaria amara Ach., 1809


  • Nyl., Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, sér. 2, 6: 288 (1872)
  • Nylander, W. (1873) '1872': Observata lichenologica in Pyreneis orientalibus. - Bulletin de la Societe Linneenne de Normandie 6: 256–328 (3-75).
  • Brodo, I.M., Sharnoff, S.D. and Sharnoff, S. (2001) Pertusaria (pp. 525-535) In, Lichens of North America. Yale University Press, New Haven, 795 pages. (Description of P. amara: pp. 527-528; distribution map for North America: p. 527; color photo: p. 527, plate 628) (Vernacular name page 527.)
  • Dibben, M.J. (1980) The Chemosystematics of the Lichen Genus Pertusaria in North America North of Mexico. Publications in Biology and Geology No. 5, Milwaukee Public Museum Press, Milwaukee. 162 pp. (Description of P. amara: pp. 42-45; black-and-white photo of thallus: p.138, fig. 60; distribution maps for North America: p. 132, figs. 9 & 10)
  • Dobson, F.S. (2000) (Fourth edition) Pertusaria (pp. 287-295) In, Lichens: An illustrated guide to the British and Irish species. The Richmond Publishing Co., Ltd., Slough, England, 431 pp. (Description, distribution map, and color photo of P. amara: p. 289)
  • Elix, J.A., Calanasan, C.A. and Archer, A.W. (1991) Subpicrolichenic acid and superpicrolichenic acid, two new depsones from Pertusaria lichens. - Australian Journal of Chemistry 44: 1487–1493.
  • Erichsen, C.F.E. (1936) Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Flechtengattung Pertusaria. – Feddes Repert. Spec. Nov. Regn. Veg. 41: 343–355.
  • Lumbsch, H.T. and Nash III, T.H. (2002) Pertusaria (pp. 341-357) In: Nash III, T.H., Ryan, B.D, Gries, C. and Bungartz, F. (eds.), Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region, Vol. 1. Lichens Unlimited, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, 532 pages. (Description of P. amara and distribution map for the Sonoran Desert Region: p. 344)
  • Lumbsch, H.T., Nash III, T.H. and Messuti, M.I. (1999) A revision of Pertusaria species with hyaline ascospores in southwestern North America (Pertusariales, Ascomycotina). Bryologist 102 (2): 215–239. (Description of P. amara: p. 218; black-and-white photo of thallus: p. 219, fig. 2; distribution map for southwestern North America: p. 228, fig. 37) [1]
  • Purvis, O.W. and James, P.W. (1992) Pertusaria DC. (1805) (pp. 447-459) In: Purvis, O.W., Coppins, B.J., Hawksworth, D.L., James, P.W. and Moore, D.M. (eds.) The Lichen Flora of Great Britain and Ireland. London: Natural History Museum Publication, 710 pp. (Description of P. amara: pp. 450-451)
  • Thomson, J.W. (2003) Pertusaria (pp.170-175). In, Lichens of Wisconsin. Wisconsin State Herbarium, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 386 pages. (Description of P. amara: p. 171)
  • van Herk, K. and Aptroot, A. (2004) Pertusaria (pp. 286-293) In, Veldgids Korstmossen. Koninkliijke Nederlandse Natuurhistorische Vereniging, 423 pages; in Dutch. (Description of P. amara: pp. 286 & 288; color photo: p. 287)
  • Wirth, V. (1995) Pertusaria (pp. 693-711 - Teil 2) In, Die Flechten Baden-Württembergs, Teil 1 & 2. Eugen Ulmer GmbH & Co., Stuttgart. 1006 pp.; in German. (Description of P. amara, and color photo: p. 699)
  • Zhao, Z.-T.; Ren, Q. and Aptroot, A. (2004) An annotated key to the lichen genus Pertusaria in China. - The Bryologist 107 (4): 531–541. (Description and substrate of P. amara: p. 533)

Links to photos[edit]

  • The Lichen Herbarium, Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Norway (Photo Gallery) - Pertusaria amara

Vernacular names[edit]

English: Bitter wart lichen;   Pore lichen
Nederlands: Ananaskorst