Mammalia (classifications)

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Taxonavigation[edit]

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Cladus: Olfactores
Cladus: Craniata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Cladus: Euteleostomi
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Cladus: Synapsida
Cladus: Eupelycosauria
Cladus: Sphenacodontia
Cladus: Sphenacodontoidea
Ordo: Therapsida
Cladus: Theriodontia
Subordo: Cynodontia
Infraordo: Eucynodontia
Cladus: Probainognathia
Cladus: Prozostrodontia
Cladus: Mammaliaformes
Classis: Mammalia

Name[edit]

Mammalia Linnaeus, 1758

Classifications[edit]

Linnaeus (1735)[edit]

Systema Naturae, 1st edition, 1735, [1], [2].

Regnum Animale

  • Quadrupedia [= mammals, without whales]
    • Anthropomorpha
    • Ferae
    • Glires
    • Jumenta
    • Pecora
  • Aves
  • Amphibia
  • Pisces
  • Insecta
  • Vermes
  • Paradoxa

Klein (1751)[edit]

Klein, J. T. Quadrupedum dispositio brevisque historia naturalis. 8vo. Lipsiae, [3].

Quadrupedia [= tetrapods, without the cecilians, snakes, birds and whales] [p. 124-127]

  • Ordo I. Quadrupedia ungulata [p. 3]
  • Ordo II. Quadrupedia digitata pilosa [p. 40]
  • Ordo III. Quadrupedia digitata depilata [p. 96]

Linnaeus (1758)[edit]

Systema Naturae, 10th ed., vol. 1, [4], [5]. See Brands, S.J. (1989-2015), [6].

Regnum Animale

  • Classis I. Mammalia
    • Quadrupedia
      • Ordo I. Primates
      • Ordo II. Bruta
      • Ordo III. Ferae
      • Ordo IV. Bestiae
      • Ordo V. Glires
      • Ordo VI. Pecora
      • Ordo VII. Belluae
    • Pinnata
      • Ordo VIII. Cete
  • Classis II. Aves
  • Classis III. Amphibia
  • Classis IV. Pisces
  • Classis V. Insecta
  • Classis VI. Vermes

Storr (1780)[edit]

Prodromus Methodi Mammalium, 1780, [7].

Tabula generalior [p. 45]

  • Imperii Natvrae
    • Regni Organici
      • Reipublicae Animalium
        • Agminis Rvbrisangvium
          • Aciei Calidorvm
            • Classis I. Mammalivm
              • Phalanx I. Pedatorum
                • Cohors I. Vnguiculatorum
                  • Ordo I. Primates
                  • Ordo II. Rosores
                  • Ordo III. Mutici
                • Cohors II. Vngulatorum
                  • Ordo I. Jumenta
                  • Ordo II. Pecora
                  • Ordo III. Belluae
              • Phalanx II. Pinnipedum
              • Phalanx III. Pinnatorum

Pennant (1781)[edit]

History of Quadrupeds, Vol. 1. 4to. London, [8].

Quadrupeds [= mammals]

  • Div. I. Hoofed Quadrupeds
  • Div. II. Digitated Quadrupeds
  • Div. III. Pinnated Quadrupeds
  • Div. IV. Winged Quadrupeds

Boddaërt (1784)[edit]

Elenchus animalium, [9].

  • Quadrupedia [= mammals]
    • Terrestria [p. 42]
    • Aquilata [p. 165]

Vicq d’Azyr (1792)[edit]

Système anatomique des quadrupèdes, in: Encyclopédie méthodique: Système anatomique, vol. 2, [10].

Quadrupèdes [= mammals, p. xcv-cx]

  • 1. Pédimanes
  • 2. Rongeurs
  • 3. Aile-pieds (Chauve souris)
  • 4. Taupens ou Taupes
  • 5. Soriciens
  • 6. Édentés
  • 7. Carnivores
  • 8. Empêtrés
  • 9. Cheveaux d'eau
  • 10. Élephantins
  • 11. Tapiriens
  • 12. Rhinocéros
  • 13. Porcini
  • 14. Ruminans
  • 15. Solipèdes

Geoffroy Saint-Hillaire & Cuvier (1795)[edit]

Geoffroy Saint-Hillaire, É. & Cuvier, G. (1795). Mémoire sur une nouvelle division des mammiferes, et sur les principes qui doivent servir de base dans cette sorte de travail. Magasin encyclopédique 2: 164–190. See Gregory (1910). [11].

Mammifères

  • Mammifères à ongles [p. 186]
    • Ordre Ier. Quadrumanes [Boddaërt].
    • Ordre IIe. Chéiroptères [Blumenbach].
    • Ordre IIe. Plantigrades [new term? Insectivores, plantigrade carnivora.]
    • Ordre IVe. Vermiformes [cf. “Verminei”, of Ray and Storr] (Mephitis, Mustela, Lutra).
    • Ordre Ve. Carnivores [Vicq d'Azyr] (Civetta, Hyaena, Canis, Felis).
    • Ordre VI°. Pédimanes [Vicq d'Azyr] (Didelphis, Phalangista).
    • Ordre VIP. Rongeurs [Vicq d'Azyr] (Kangurus, Dipus, Glis, Sciurus, Mus, etc.).
    • Ordre VIIIe. Édentés [Vicq d'Azyr] (Myrmecophaga, Manis, Dasypus).
    • Ordre IXe. Tardigrades [cf. Brisson's “Tardigradus”] (Bradypus).
  • Mammifères à sabots
    • Ordre Xe. Pachydermes [new term?] (Elephantus, Rhinoceros, Hippopotamus, Tapir, Sus).
    • Ordre XIe. Ruminans [Vicq d'Azyr] (Camelus, Moschus, Cervus, Camelopardalis, Antilope, Capra, Ovis, Bos).
    • Ordre XIIe. Solipèdes [Vicq d'Azyr] (Equus).
  • Mammifères marins
    • Ordre XIIIe. Amphibies [cf. “Empêtrés” Vicq d'Azyr] (Phoca, Rosmarus, Manatus, Trichecus [Dugong]).
    • Ordre XIVe. Cétacés.

Lacépède (1799)[edit]

Tableau des divisions, sous-divisions, ordres et genres des, mammifères, pp. 1-18. Paris, année VII [1799]. See Gregory (1910).

Mammifères

  • Division I. Quadrupèdes proprement dis.
  • Division II. Mammifères ailés.
  • Division III. Mammifères marines.

Illiger (1811)[edit]

Prodromus mammalium et avium, [12].

Mammalia [p. 58]

  • Erecta
  • Pollicata
  • Salientia
  • Prensiculantia
  • Multungula
  • Solidungula
  • Bisulca
  • Tardigrada
  • Effodientia
  • Reptantia
  • Volitantia
  • Faculata
  • Pinnipedia
  • Natantia

de Blainville (1834)[edit]

de Blainville (1834), cited by Gervais in the Dictionnaire pittoresque d'histoire naturelle, Tome IV, 1836, p. 619, [13].

Mammifères

  • Monadelphes
  • Didelphes
  • Ornithodelphes

de Blainville (1839-1864)[edit]

de Blainville, M. Ostéographie, ou, Description iconographique comparée du squelette et du système dentaire des Mammifères récents et fossiles. 4 vols. of text in 4to, 4 vol. of plates in folio. Paris, [14], [15], [16].

Mammifères

  • Primatès
  • Secundatès
  • Quaternatès
  • Maldentés

Kaup (1844)[edit]

Classification der säugethiere und vögel, [17].

Mammalia

  • Pollicata
  • Glires
  • Mammalia herpethoidea
  • Mammalia Ichthyoidea
  • Ruminantia

Wagner (1855)[edit]

Schreber's Säugetiere, Suppl. Bd., part 5, Vte Abth., pp. ix-xxvi, [18], plates, [19].

Säugetiere

  • Simiae
  • Edentata
  • Marsupialia
  • Ruminantia
  • Solidungula
  • Pachydermata
  • Insectivora
  • Chiroptera

Gill (1870, 1872)[edit]

On the relations of the orders of mammals. Proc. Amer. Assoc. Adv. Sci., 1870, 19th meeting, pp. 267-270, [20].

Arrangement of the families of mammals, Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 1872, [21].

Class Mammalia

  • Subclass Monodelphia
  • Subclass Didelphia
  • Subclass Ornithodelphia

Huxley (1880)[edit]

Huxley T.H. 1880. On the application of the laws of evolution to the arrangement of the Vertebrata and more particularly of the Mammalia. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., p. 649-662, [22].

Mammalia

  • Hypotheria
  • Prototheria
  • Metatheria
  • Eutheria

Flower (1883)[edit]

On the arrangement of the orders and families of existing Mammalia. Proc. Zoo. Soc., Apr. 17, 1883, pp. 178-186, [23].

Mammalia

  • Subclass Prototheria or Ornithodelphia
  • Subclass Metatheria or Didelphia
  • Subclass Eutheria or Monodelphia

Weber (1904)[edit]

Die Säugetiere, pp. ix-xi, [24].

Säugetiere

  • I. Unterklasse Monotremata
  • II. Unterklasse Marsupialia
  • III. Unterklasse Monodelphia

Osborn (1910)[edit]

Osborn H.F. 1910. The age of mammals in Europe, Asia and North America. N.Y.: MacMillan, 635 p.,[25].

  • Mammalia [p. 25]
    • Prototheia
      • Protodonta
      • Monotremata
    • Marsupialia, Didelphia or Metatheria
      • Triconodonta
      • Marsupialia proper
    • Placentalia, Monodelphia or Eutheria
      • Unguiculata
      • Primates
      • Ungulata
      • Cetacea

Gregory (1910)[edit]

Gregory, W.K. 1910. The orders of mammals. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. V. 27. P. 1-524, [26].

  • Class Reptilia [p. 464]
    • Order Therapsida Broom
  • Class Mammalia Linn.
    • ?Subclass Promammalia Haeckel
    • Subclass Prototheria Gill, Huxley
    • Subclass Theria Parker & Haswell (= Eutheria Gill)

Simpson (1945)[edit]

Simpson, G. G. 1945. The principles of classification and a classification of mammals. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 85: 1–350, [27].

  • Class Mammalia
    • Subclass Prototheria
      • Order Monotremata
    • Subclass †Allotheria
      • Order †Multituberculata
    • Mammalia of uncertain subclass
      • Order †Triconodonta
    • Subclass Theria
      • Infraclass †Pantotheria
        • Order †Pantotheria
        • Order †Symmetrodonta
      • Infraclass Metatheria
        • Order Marsupialia
      • Infraclass Eutheria
        • Cohort Unguiculata
          • Order Insectivora (incl. Macroscelididae)
          • Order Dermoptera
          • Order Chiroptera
          • Order Primates (incl. Tupaiidae)
          • Order Edentata
          • Order Pholidota
        • Cohort Glires
          • Order Lagomorpha
          • Order Rodentia
        • Cohort Mutica
          • Order Cetacea
        • Cohort Ferungulata
          • Superorder Ferae
            • Order Carnivora (incl. Pinnipedia)
          • Superorder Protungulata
            • Order Tubulidentata
          • Superorder Paenungulata
            • Order Proboscidea
            • Order Hyracoidea
            • Order Sirenia
          • Superorder Mesaxonia
            • Order Perissodactyla
          • Superorder Paraxonia
            • Order Artiodactyla

Novacek et al. in Benton (1988)[edit]

Novacek M.J., Wyss A., McKenna M.C. 1988. The major groups of eutherian mammals. In: Benton M.J. (ed). The phylogeny and classification of tetrapods. V. 2. Mammals. Oxford: Clarendon Press, p. 31-71. From Pavlinov (2006).

Mammalia

  • Prototheria
  • Theria
    • Marsupialia
    • Placentalia
      • Cohort Edentata
        • Order Xenarthra
        • Order Pholidota
      • Cohort Epitheria
        • Order Tubulidentata
        • Superorder Ferae
          • Order Carnivora
        • Superorder Lipotyphla
          • Order Insectivora
        • Superorder Archonta
          • Order Scandentia
          • Order Primates
          • Grandorder Volitantia
            • Order Dermoptera
            • Order Chiroptera
        • Superorder Anagalida
          • Order Macroscelidea
          • Grandorder Glires
            • Order Lagomorpha
            • Order Rodentia
        • Superorder Ungulata
          • Order Artiodactyla
          • Order Perissodactyla
          • Order Cetacea
          • Grandorder Paenungulata
            • Order Hyracoidea
            • Mirorder Tethytheria
              • Order Proboscidea
              • Order Sirenia

McKenna and Bell (1997)[edit]

McKenna, M. C., and Bell, S. K. 1997. Classification of Mammals Above the Species Level. Columbia University Press, New York, 631 pp., [28].

Class Mammalia

Shoshani and MacKenna (1998)[edit]

Shoshani J., McKenna M.C. 1998. Higher taxonomic relationships among extant mammals based on morphology, with selected comparisons of results from molecular data. Mol. Phylog. Evol. V. 9 (3). P. 572-584. From Pavlinov (2006).

Mammalia

  • Prototheria
  • Theria
    • Marsupialia
    • Placentalia
      • Edentata
        • Xenarthra
      • Epitheria
        • Lipotyphla
          • Insectivora
        • Preptotheria
          • Unguiculata
            • Anagalida
              • Macroscelidea
              • Glires
                • Lagomorpha
                • Rodentia
            • Archonta
              • Scandentia
              • Primatomorpha
                • Primates
                • Volitantia
                  • Dermoptera
                  • Chiroptera
          • Ferungulata
            • Ferae
              • Carnivora
              • Pholidota
            • Ungulata
              • Tubulidentata
              • Cetungulata
                • Eparctocyona
                  • Artiodactyla
                  • Cetacea
                • Altungulata
                  • Perissodactyla
                  • Uranotheria
                    • Hyracoidea
                    • Tethytheria
                      • Proboscidea
                      • Sirenia

Agadjanian et al. (2000)[edit]

Agadjanian, A. K., Kalandadze, N. N., Rautian, A. S. (2000). The radiation of mammalian orders: a new insight. Paleontologicheskii Zhurnal. (6): 69–73.

[Aгаджанян А.К., Каландадзе Н.Н., Раутиан А.С., 2000. Радиация отрядов млекопитающих: новый взгляд. Палеонтол. журн. № 6. С. 69-73.] From Pavlinov (2006).

  • Placentalia
    • Legion Ferae
      • Cohort Carnivora
        • Order Caniformia
        • Order Feliformia
      • Cohort Insectivora
        • Order Lipotyphla
    • Legion Asiatheria
      • Cohort Volitantia
        • Order Menotyphla
        • Order Chiroptera
        • Order Dermoptera
      • Cohort Lagotheria
        • Order Lagomorpha
    • Legion Westheria
      • Cohort Primatomorpha
        • Order Primates
        • Order Rodentia
      • Cohort Edentata
        • Order Nomarthra
        • Order Xenarthra
      • Cohort Ungulata
        • Subcohort Proterungulata
          • Order Macroscelidea
        • Subcohort Mesaxonia
          • Order Perissodactyla
        • Subcohort Paenungulata
          • Superorder Procaviamorpha
            • Order Hyracoidea
          • Superorder Tethytheria
            • Order Proboscidea
            • Order Sirenia
        • Subcohort Ferungulata
          • Superorder Paraxonia
            • Order Artiodacyla
          • Superorder Mutica
            • Order Cetacea

Pavlinov (2006)[edit]

Pavlinov, I. Y. Systematics of Recent Mammals (2d ed.) — Moscow: Moscow Univ. Publ. 2006. 297 p.

[Павлинов И. Я. Систематика современных млекопитающих (2 изд.) — М.: изд-во МГУ. 2006. 297 с.]

  • Class Mammalia [p. 24, 239]
    • Subclass Protothertia
      • Order Platypoda
      • Order Tachyglossa
    • Subclass Theria
      • Infraclass Metatheria (= Marsupiala)
        • Cohort Ameridelphia
          • Order Didelphimorphia
          • Order Paucituberculata
        • Cohort Australidelphia
          • Order Microbiotheria
          • Order Dasyuromorphia
          • Order Notoryctemorphia
          • Superorder Syndactyli
            • Order Peramelemorphia
            • Order Diprotodontia
      • Infraclass Eutheria (= Placentalia)
        • Legion Edentata
          • Order Cingulata
          • Order Pilosa
        • Legion Epi theria
          • Cohort Lipotyphla
            • Order Afrosoricida
            • Order Eulipotyphla
          • Cohort Archonta
            • Order Scandentia
            • Order Primates
            • Order Dermoptera
            • Order Chiroptera
          • Cohort Anagalida
            • Order Macroscelidea
            • Superorder Glires
              • Order Lagomorpha
              • Order Rodentia
          • Cohort Ferae
            • Order Pholidota
            • Order Carnivora
          • Cohort Ungulata
            • Order †Bibymalagasia
            • Order Tubulidentata
            • Subcohort Cetungulata
              • Order Perissodactyla
              • Hyperorder Eparctocyona (= Cetartiodactyla)
                • Order Cetacea
                • Order Artiodactyla
              • Hyperorder Paenungulata
                • Order Hyracoidea
                • Superorder Tethytheria
                  • Order Proboscidea
                  • Order Sirenia

References[edit]

  • Gregory, W. K. (1910). The orders of mammals. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, v. 27, [29].