Letharia columbiana

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Letharia columbiana


Taxonavigation: Lecanorales 

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Fungi
Subregnum: Dikarya
Divisio: Ascomycota
Subdivisio: Pezizomycotina
Classis: Lecanoromycetes
Subclassis: Lecanoromycetidae
Ordo: Lecanorales

Familia: Parmeliaceae
Subfamilia: Parmelioideae
Genus: Letharia
Species: Letharia columbiana



Letharia columbiana (Nutt.) J.W.Thomson, 1969

Substrate and ecology (Sonoran region): On bark or wood of conifers, in open well-ventilated intermontane forests, usually growing high on trunks, sometimes on dead branches.

Basionym: Borrera columbiana Nutt., 1836




  • Brodo, I.M., Sharnoff, S.D. and Sharnoff, S. (2001) Letharia (pp. 411-413) In, Lichens of North America. Yale University Press, New Haven, 795 pages. (Description of L. columbiana and distribution map for North America: p. 412; color photo: p. 412, plate 467)
  • Goward, T. 1999. The lichens of British Columbia - Illustrated Keys - Part 2 - Fruticose Species. Province of British Columbia, Ministry of Forests Research Program, 319 pp. (RLL List # 176 / Rec.# 6980 - Recent Literature on Lichens) Online Reference page. : Letharia (Th. Fr.) Zahlbr. (pp. 183-184) (Description of L. columbiana: p. 184; drawing: p. 183)
  • Hale, M.E. and Cole, M. (1988) Letharia (Th. Fr.) Zahlbr. (pp. 155-156) In Lichens of California. University of California Press, 254 pages. (Description of L. columbiana: p. 155; color photo: plate 5b)
  • McCune, B. and Geiser, L. (1997) Letharia (p. 147-148) Macrolichens of the Pacific Northwest. Oregon State University Press, Corvallis, 386 pp. (Description of L. columbiana: pp. 147-148; color photo: p. 147)
  • Ryan, B.D. (2002) Letharia (pp. 267-270) In: Nash III, T.H., Ryan, B.D, Gries, C. and Bungartz, F. (eds.), Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region, Vol. 1. Lichens Unlimited, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, 532 pages. (Description of L. columbiana: pp. 268-269; distribution map for the Sonoran region: p. 269)

Vernacular names

English: Brown-eyed wolf lichen,   Wolf lichen,   Brown-eyed wolf