Homo sapiens sapiens

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Anterior view of human female and male, with labels 2
Posterior view of human female and male, without labels
Carolus Linnaeus

Taxonavigation[edit]

Taxonavigation: Hominoidea 
Template recursion depth limit exceeded (40)

Subregnum: Template recursion depth limit exceeded (40) Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Cladus: Craniata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Cladus: Synapsida
Cladus: Eupelycosauria
Cladus: Sphenacodontia
Cladus: Sphenacodontoidea
Ordo: Therapsida
Cladus: Theriodontia
Subordo: Cynodontia
Infraordo: Eucynodontia
Cladus: Probainognathia
Cladus: Prozostrodontia
Cladus: Mammaliaformes
Classis: Mammalia
Subclassis: Trechnotheria
Infraclassis: Zatheria
Supercohort: Theria
Cohort: Eutheria
Cohort: Placentalia
Superordo: Boreoeutheria
Superordo: Euarchontoglires
Ordo: Primates
Subordo: Haplorhini
Infraordo: Simiiformes
Parvordo: Catarrhini
Superfamilia: Hominoidea

Familia: Hominidae
Subfamilia: Homininae
Tribus: Hominini
Subtribus: Hominina
Genus: Homo
Species: Homo sapiens
Subspecies: Homo sapiens sapiens

Name[edit]

Homo sapiens sapiens (informal)

Type data[edit]

  • Linnaeus is designated as the lectotype of H. sapiens (Stearn, 1959; see also Notton & Stringer, n.d.).

Notes[edit]

  • H. s. sapiens was not truly used by Linnaeus (1758) or Stearn (1959). It was misattributed to Linnaeus by Bailey (1946).
  • The name has at least three meanings:
    • In the 1940s, H. s. sapiens was used as a synonym for Linnaeus' H. s. europaeus (Bailey, 1946, p. 356; Hall, 1946, p. 359). Linnaeus originally named four geographical subspecies of Homo sapiens: europaeus, afer, asiaticus and americanus. This division of the extant human populations into taxonomic subspecies was gradually given up in the 1970s (e.g., Thenius et al., 1975).
    • H. s. sapiens was used for Cro-Magnon Man by some authors who classified Neanderthals (H. s. neanderthalensis) as a subspecies of H. sapiens (e.g., Pearce, 1971; Szalay and Delson, 1979).
    • More recently, H. s. sapiens was also used in a wider sense for anatomically modern humans by some authors who classified Herto Man (H. s. idaltu) as subspecies of H. sapiens (White et al., 2003).

References[edit]

  • Bailey, J. W., 1946. The Mammals of Virginia. Richmond: Williams Printing. Google.
  • Hall, E. R., 1946. Zoological Subspecies of Man at the Peace Table. Journal of Mammalogy 27 (4): 358–364. JSTOR.
  • Hall, E. R., 1960. Zoological Subspecies of Man. Mankind Quarterly 1 (2): 113-119. Google.
  • Notton, D., & Stringer, C., undated. Who is the type of Homo sapiens?. International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. ICZN.
  • Pearce, E. K. V., 1971. Proto-neolithic Adam and Recent Anthropology. Journal of the American Scientific Affiliation 23: 130-39. JASA.
  • Stearn, W. T., 1959. The background of Linnaeus's contributions to the nomenclature and methods of systematic biology. Systematic zoology 8: 4–22. JSTOR
  • Szalay, F. S. & Delson, E., 1979. Evolutionary History of the Primates. Academic Press, p. 508. Google.
  • Thenius, E., Hemmer, H. & Klinghammer, E., 1975. Human origins. In: Grzimek, B. (ed.), Animal life encyclopedia, Vol. II, Mammals II. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. Google.
  • White, Tim D.; Asfaw, B.; DeGusta, D.; Gilbert, H.; Richards, G. D.; Suwa, G.; Howell, F. C., 2003: Pleistocene Homo sapiens from Middle Awash, Ethiopia. Nature, 423: 742–747. PDF.

Vernacular names[edit]

Afrikaans: Mens
العربية: إنسان
aragonés: Sers umans
arpetan: Humen
অসমীয়া: মানুহ
asturianu: Humanos
Aymar aru: Jaqi
Bahasa Indonesia: Manusia
Bahasa Melayu: Manusia
বাংলা: মানুষ
be: Muntu
bosanski: Čovjek
brezhoneg: Den
български: Човек
català: Humà
Чӑвашла: Тăнлă çын
čeština: Člověk
bem: Muntu
српски / srpski: Човек
dansk: Menneske
Deutsch: Mensch
Diné bizaad: Diné
ཇོང་ཁ: Omo dapeonz
eesti: Inimene
Ελληνικά: Άνθρωπος
English: Human
español: Humano
Esperanto: Homo
euskara: Gizakia
فارسی: انسان
français: Humain
Frysk: Minske
Gaeilge: Duine
galego: Ser humano
한국어: 사람(아종)
हिन्दी: इंसान, मनुष्य, मानव
hrvatski: Suvremeni čovjek
Ido: Homo
interlingua: Esser human
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: Inuk
Ирон: Адæймаг
íslenska: Maður
italiano: Uomo
עברית: אדם נבון מודרני
kernowek: Tus
Kiswahili: Binadamu
Kreyòl ayisyen: Lòm
kurdî: Mirov
Latina: Homo
latviešu: Mūsdienu saprātīgais cilvēks
lietuvių: Žmogus
Limburgs: Mins
lingála: Moto
la .lojban.: remna
magyar: Ember
македонски: Човек
മലയാളം: മനുഷ്യന്‍
Malti: bniedem
Nāhuatl: Tlācatl
Nederlands: Mens
日本語: 人
norsk: Menneske
norsk nynorsk: Menneske
Plattdüütsch: Minsch
polski: Człowiek współczesny
(= Człowiek rozumny współczesny)
português: Humano
română: Om
Runa Simi: Runa
русский: Человек разумный
shqip: Njeriu
sicilianu: Umanu
slovenčina: Človek rozumný
slovenščina: Misleči človek
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Čovjek
suomi: Ihminen
svenska: Människa
syl: ꠝꠣꠘꠥ, ꠝꠣꠁꠘ꠆ꠡ
Tagalog: Tao
தமிழ்: மனிதன்
ไทย: มนุษย์
Tiếng Việt: Loài người
Türkçe: İnsan
українська: Людина
اردو: انسان
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: ئىنساننىڭ
West-Vlams: Mens
ייִדיש: מענטש
中文: 人