Bitis caudalis

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Bitis caudalis


Taxonavigation: Viperoidea 

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Cladus: Sarcopterygii
Cladus: Rhipidistia
Cladus: Tetrapodomorpha
Cladus: Eotetrapodiformes
Cladus: Elpistostegalia
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Lepidosauromorpha
Superordo: Lepidosauria
Ordo: Squamata
Cladus: Unidentata, Episquamata
Cladus: Toxicofera
Subordo: Serpentes
Infraordo: Caenophidia
Superfamilia: Viperoidea

Familia: Viperidae
Subfamilia: Viperinae
Genus: Bitis
Species: Bitis caudalis


  • Bitis caudalis (Smith, 1839)

Syntypes (5): BMNH 1865.5.4.15a-e, 3 ♂, 2 ♀.

Type locality: “sandy districts north of the Cape Colony”, Northern Cape Province, South Africa.


  • Vipera (Cerastes) caudalis Smith, 1839: unpaginated; plate VII [original combination, replacement name]
  • Bitis caudalisBoulenger, 1896: 498 [name combination]


  • Vipera ocellata Smith, 1838: 92 [preoccupied by Vipera ocellata Latreille in Sonnini & Latreille, 1801]


Primary references[edit]

  • Smith, A. 1838. Contributions to the Natural History of Southern Africa. Magazine of Natural History 2: 92–94. BHL Reference page
  • Smith, A. 1838–1849. Illustrations of the Zoology of South Africa; Consisting Chiefly of Figures and Descriptions of the Objects of Natural History Collected During an Expedition Into the Interior of South Africa, in the Years 1834, 1835, and 1836; Fitted Out by “The Cape of Good Hope Association for Exploring Central Africa.” Published Under the Authority of the Lords Commissioners of Her Majesty’s Treasury. Reptilia. Vol. 2. Smith, Elder and Co.: London. [100] + 28 pp., pls. 1–78. BHL Reference page
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1896. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum Volume III: containing the Colubridae (Opisthoglyphae and Proteroglyphae), Amblycephalidae, and Viperidae. Taylor & Francis: London. xiv + 727 pp. BHL


Vernacular names[edit]

English: Horned Adder
Wikimedia Commons For more multimedia, look at Bitis caudalis on Wikimedia Commons.