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Apalone spinifera


Taxonavigation: Trionychoidea 

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Megaclassis: Osteichthyes
Cladus: Sarcopterygii
Cladus: Rhipidistia
Cladus: Tetrapodomorpha
Cladus: Eotetrapodiformes
Cladus: Elpistostegalia
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Cladus: Archelosauria
Division: Pan-Testudines
Division: Testudinata
Ordo: Testudines
Subordo: Cryptodira
Superfamilia: Trionychoidea

Familia: Trionychidae
Subfamiliae (3): Cyclanorbinae – Plastomeninae – Trionychinae

Overview of genera (26)[edit]

Cyclanorbinae: Cyclanorbis – Cycloderma – Lissemys – Nemegtemys

Plastomeninae: Atoposemys – Heloplanoplia – Hutchemys – Plastomenus

Trionychinae: Amyda – Apalone – Chitra – Dogania – Nilssonia – Palea – Pelochelys – Pelodiscus – Petrochelys – Rafetus – Trionyx

Stem Trionychids: Axestemys – Drazinderetes – Gilmoremys – Gobiapalone – Khunnuchelys – Kuhnemys – Murgonemys – Perochelys



Plastomenidae used as subfamily to reconcile Paleo and Living taxa taxonomy. One is using Phylocode the other ICZN system. Higher order reconciliation necessary. Unassigned basal taxa will need to be assigned at a later date the basal Trionychids are highly unresolved.


  • Turtle Extinctions Working Group (Rhodin, A.G.J., Thomson, S., Georgalis, G., Karl, H.-V., Danilov, I.G., Takahashi, A., de la Fuente, M.S., Bourque, J.R., Delfino, M., Bour, R., Iverson, J.B., Shaffer, H.B., and van Dijk, P.P.). 2015. Turtles and tortoises of the world during the rise and global spread of humanity: first checklist and review of extinct Pleistocene and Holocene chelonians. Chelonian Research Monographs. 5(8):000e.1–66. Download
  • Georges, A.; Thomson, S. 2010: Diversity of Australasian freshwater turtles, with an annotated synonymy and keys to species. Zootaxa 2496: 1–37. Preview PDF Reference page
  • TTWG (Turtle Taxonomy Working Group) 2021. Turtles of the World: Annotated Checklist and Atlas of Taxonomy, Synonymy, Distribution, and Conservation Status (9th Ed.). Chelonian Research Monographs 8: 1–472. DOI: 10.3854/crm.8.checklist.atlas.v9.2021.PDF Reference page
  • Georgalis, G. & Joyce, W.G. 2017. A Review of the Fossil Record of Old World Turtles of the Clade Pan-Trionychidae. Bulletin of the Peabody Museum of Natural History 58(1):115–208.
  • Vitek, N.S. & Joyce, W.G. 2015. A Review of the Fossil Record of New World Turtles of the Clade Pan-Trionychidae. Bulletin of the Peabody Museum of Natural History 56(2):185–244.

Vernacular names[edit]

Deutsch: Weichschildkröten
English: Soft-shelled Turtles
日本語: スッポン科
한국어: 자라과
Nederlands: Weekschildpadden
русский: Трёхкоготные черепахи
ไทย: ตะพาบ, ตะพาบน้ำ
Türkçe: Dudaklı kaplumbağagiller
For more multimedia, look at Trionychidae on Wikimedia Commons.