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Stevens et al., 2016 has resurrected this subfamily from the tribe (Pyroleae) in Monotropoideae on two grounds;

  • The two clades diverged 70/79 MYA.
  • There are significant differences in their myco-heterotrophic behaviour. This subfamily are facultative parasites and normally have functional leaves or retain these when parasitism is difficult. Whereas genera in the Monotropoideae are obligate parasites and achlorophyllous.

However, it is acknowledged that this is a preference/acceptance rather than formal circumscription. Andyboorman (talk) 20:41, 22 April 2016 (UTC)Reply[reply]