Placynthium nigrum

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Taxonavigation[edit]

Taxonavigation: Collematineae 

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Fungi
Subregnum: Dikarya
Divisio: Ascomycota
Subdivisio: Pezizomycotina
Classis: Lecanoromycetes
Subclassis: Lecanoromycetidae
Ordo: Peltigerales
Subordo: Collematineae

Familia: Placynthiaceae
Genus: Placynthium
Species: Placynthium nigrum

Name[edit]

Placynthium nigrum (Hudson) Gray, 1821


World distribution: Widely distributed in the Northern Hemisphere

Basionym
  • Lichen niger Huds., Flora Anglica 2: 524 (1778)

Synonyms[edit]

  • Biatora corallinoides var. fuscum Hepp, Flecht. Europ.: no. 10 (1853)
  • Collema nigrum (Huds.) Hoffm., 1796
  • Lecidea nigra (Huds.) Ach., 1803
  • Lecothecium nigrum (Huds.) A. Massal., Ric. auton. lich. crost. (Verona): 109 (1852)
  • Lecothecium nigrum f. fuscum (Hepp) Mudd, Man. Brit. Lich.: 175 (1861)
  • Lichen niger Huds., Fl. Angl., Edn 2 2: 524 (1778)
  • Pannaria nigra (Huds.) Nyl., Annls Sci. Nat., Bot., sér. 4 12: 295 (1859)
  • Pannaria nigra subsp. psotina (Nyl.) Cromb.
  • Pannaria nigra subsp. triseptata (Nyl.) Nyl. ex Cromb.
  • Pannaria nigra (Huds.) Nyl., (1859) var. nigra
  • Pannaria nigra var. triseptata Nyl., Lich. Scand. (Uppsala): 126 (1861)
  • Pannularia nigra (Huds.) Nyl., 1886
  • Pannularia nigra (Huds.) Nyl., (1886) f. nigra
  • Pannularia nigra subsp. psotina (Nyl.) Cromb.
  • Parmelia nigra (Huds.) Mart., 1817
  • Parmeliella nigra (Huds.) Müll. Arg., 1894
  • Patellaria nigra (Huds.) Spreng., 1827
  • Placynthium corallinoides (Hoffm.) Jatta
  • Placynthium dolichoterum f. triseptatum (Nyl.) Gyeln., 1940
  • Placynthium nigrum f. caespiticium (Wedd.) Walt. Watson, Lich. Somerset: 18 (1930)
  • Placynthium nigrum (Huds.) Gray, Nat. Arr. Brit. Pl. (London) 2: 395 (1821) f. nigrum
  • Placynthium nigrum f. psotinum (Nyl.) Walt. Watson, Lich. Somerset: 18 (1930)
  • Placynthium nigrum f. triseptatum (Nyl.) Walt. Watson, Lich. Somerset: 18 (1930)
  • Placynthium nigrum var. fuscum (Hepp) Trevis., 1925
  • Placynthium nigrum (Huds.) Gray, Nat. Arr. Brit. Pl. (London) 2: 395 (1821) var. nigrum
  • Placynthium nigrum var. triseptatum (Nyl.) Hue, 1925
  • Placynthium siliceum Gyeln.
  • Placynthium tremniacum f. fuscum (Hepp) Gyeln., 1940
  • Placynthium triseptatum (Nyl.) Vain., 1909
  • Psora nigra (Huds.) L. Marchand, 1830

References[edit]

Primary[edit]

  • Gray, Nat. Arr. Brit. Pl. (London) 2: 395 (1821)
  • Gray, S. F. (1821) A Natural Arrangement of British Plants according to each other, as pointed out by Jussieu, De Candolle, Brown etc. with an Introduction to Botany. - London.   **[Mattick Rec.# 33160] - (Recent Literature on Lichens - Mattick No.)**
  • Hudson, W. 1778. Flora Anglica; exhibens plantas per regnum Britanniæ sponte crescentes, distributas secundum systema sexuale: cum differentiis specierum, synonymis auctorum, nominibus incolarum, solo locorum, tempore florendi, officinalibus pharmacopæorum. Tomus II. Editio altera, emendata et aucta.. pp. [i], 335–690. Londini [London]: impensis auctoris: prostant venales apud J. Nourse, in the Strand. (BHL) Reference page

Secondary[edit]

  • Brodo, I.M., Sharnoff, S.D. and Sharnoff, S. (2001) Placynthium (p. 573) In, Lichens of North America. Yale University Press, New Haven, 795 pages.   **[RLL List # 184 / Rec.# 22465] - (Recent Literature on Lichens)** (Discussion of Placynthium nigrum and distribution map for North America: p. 573; color photo: p. 573, plate 692)
  • Dobson, F.S. (2000) (Fourth edition) Placynthium (pp. 311-312) In, Lichens: An illustrated guide to the British and Irish species. The Richmond Publishing Co., Ltd., Slough, England, 431 pp.   **[RLL List # 184 / Rec.# 22402] - (Recent Literature on Lichens)** (Description, distribution map, color photo of Placynthium nigrum: p. 312)
  • Gilbert, O.L. and James, P.W. (1992) Placynthium (Ach.) Gray 1812 (pp. 476-479) In: Purvis, O.W., Coppins, B.J., Hawksworth, D.L., James, P.W. and Moore, D.M. (eds.) The Lichen Flora of Great Britain and Ireland. London: Natural History Museum Publication, 710 pp.   **[RLL List # 151 / Rec.# 15105] - (Recent Literature on Lichens)** (Discussion of Placynthium nigrum: p. 478)
  • Henssen, A. (1963) The North American species of Placynthium. - Canad. Jour. Bot. 41: 1687–1724.   **[RLL List # 49 / Rec.# 8310] - (Recent Literature on Lichens)** (doi: 10.1139/b63-155) (Illustrations of Placynthium nigrum: pp. 1711, 1714, 1716-18 & plate I)
  • Schultz, M. (2002) Placynthium (pp. 397-399) In: Nash III, T.H.; Ryan, B.D.; Gries, C. and Bungartz, F. (eds.), Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region, Vol. 1. Lichens Unlimited, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, 532 pages.   **[RLL List # 187 / Rec.# 23105] - (Recent Literature on Lichens)** (Discussion of Placynthium nigrum: pp. 398-399; distribution map for the Sonoran region: p. 398)
  • Thomson, J.W. (2003) Placynthium (Ach.) Gray (pp. 189-190) In, Lichens of Wisconsin. Wisconsin State Herbarium, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 386 pages.   **[RLL List # 190 / Rec.# 24161] - (Recent Literature on Lichens)** (Discussion of Placynthium nigrum: p. 190)
  • van Herk, K. and Aptroot, A. (2004) Placynthium (Ach.) Gray (pp. 310-311) In, Veldgids Korstmossen. Koninkliijke Nederlandse Natuurhistorische Vereniging, 423 pages; in Dutch.   **[RLL List # 196 / Rec.# 26085] - (Recent Literature on Lichens)** (Description of Placynthium nigrum: p.310; color photo: p. 311)
  • Wirth, V. (1995) Placynthium (Ach.) S. Gray (pp. 745-749) - Teil 2 - In, Die Flechten Baden-Württembergs, Teil 1 & 2. Eugen Ulmer GmbH & Co., Stuttgart. 1006 pp.; in German.   **[RLL List # 159 / Rec.# 20405] - (Recent Literature on Lichens)** (Discussion of Placynthium nigrum: p. 749; color photo: p. 747)

Links[edit]

Links to Photos[edit]

  • The Lichen Herbarium, Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Norway (Photo Gallery) - Placynthium nigrum

Vernacular names[edit]

English: Blackthread lichen
Nederlands: Zwarte grafkorst