Hypotrachyna livida

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Hypotrachyna livida


Taxonavigation: Lecanorales 

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Fungi
Subregnum: Dikarya
Divisio: Ascomycota
Subdivisio: Pezizomycotina
Classis: Lecanoromycetes
Subclassis: Lecanoromycetidae
Ordo: Lecanorales

Familia: Parmeliaceae
Subfamilia: Parmelioideae
Genus: Hypotrachyna
Species: Hypotrachyna livida


Hypotrachyna livida (Taylor) Hale, 1975

Substrate and ecology (Sonoran region): On hardwood bark and rarely acidic rocks in montane forests.



  • Hale, Smithson. Contr. bot. 25: 45 (1975)
  • Hale, M.E., Jr. (1975) A revision of the lichen genus Hypotrachyna (Parmeliaceae) in tropical America. - Smithsonian Contrib. Bot. 25: 1–73.   (RLL List # 93-43 / Rec.# 7472 - Recent Literature on Lichens) (Web site) (Illustration of H. livida: p. 46)
  • Brodo, I.M., Sharnoff, S.D. and Sharnoff, S. (2001) Hypotrachyna (pp. 356-360) In, Lichens of North America. Yale University Press, New Haven, 795 pages. (Description of H. livida and distribution map for North America: p. 358; color photo: p. 358, plate 391)
  • Flenniken, D. (1999) Hypotrachyna (Vainio) Hale (pp. 124-129) In The Macrolichens In West Virginia, 231 pages, 26 plates. (Published by D. Flenniken, 2273 Blachleyville Rd, Wooster, Ohio 44691) (Description of H. livida: pp. 125-126; color photo: plate 13, A)
  • Hale, M.E., Jr. (1979) How to Know the Lichens. 2nd. Edition. - Wm. C. Brown Co., Dubuque, Iowa. 246 pp. (Illustration of H. livida: p. 101)
  • Hinds, J.W. and Hinds, P.L. (2007) Hypotrachyna (Vain.) Hale, 1974 (pp. 277-279) In, The Macrolichens of New England. - Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden No. 96. New York Botanical Garden Press, Bronx, New York. 584 pp. (Description of H. livida: p. 278; color photo: p. 278, fig. 147)
  • Nash III, T.H.; Sipman, H.G.M. and Elix, J.A. (2002) Hypotrachyna (pp. 238-251) In: Nash III, T.H., Ryan, B.D, Gries, C. and Bungartz, F. (eds.), Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region, Vol. 1. Lichens Unlimited, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, 532 pages. (Description of H. livida: pp. 245-246)

Links to photos[edit]

Vernacular names[edit]

English: Wrinkled loop lichen,   Hypotrachyna lichen