Heterodermia echinata

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Taxonavigation: Caliciales 

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Fungi
Subregnum: Dikarya
Divisio: Ascomycota
Subdivisio: Pezizomycotina
Classis: Lecanoromycetes
Subclassis: Lecanoromycetidae
Ordo: Caliciales

Familia: Physciaceae
Genus: Heterodermia
Species: Heterodermia echinata


Heterodermia echinata (Taylor) W.L.Culb., 1967


Ecology and Distribution: Heterodermia echinata is widespread in southeastern North America and the Ozarks, usually occurring on the branches of trees along forest margins and openings.


  • Culberson, W.L. (1966) Chemistry and taxonomy of the lichen genera Heterodermia and Anaptychia in the Carolinas. - The Bryologist 69: 472–487.   (RLL List # 61 / Rec. # 3843 - Recent Literature on Lichens) (JSTOR) (Heterodermia echinata: p. 481)
  • Brodo, I.M., Sharnoff, S.D. and Sharnoff, S. (2001) Heterodermia (pp. 334-341) In, Lichens of North America. Yale University Press, New Haven, 795 pages. (Description of Heterodermia echinata and distribution map for North America: p. 336; color photo: p. 337, plate 361)
  • Flenniken, D. (1999) Heterodermia Trevisan (pp. 115-121) In The Macrolichens In West Virginia, 231 pages, 26 plates. (Published by D. Flenniken, 2273 Blachleyville Rd, Wooster, Ohio 44691) (Description of Heterodermia echinata: pp. 117-118; color photo: Plate 12, A)
  • Hinds, J.W. and Hinds, P.L. (2007) Heterodermia Trevis., 1868 (pp. 259-264) In, The Macrolichens of New England. - Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden No. 96. New York Botanical Garden Press, Bronx, New York. 584 pp. (Description of Heterodermia echinata: p. 260)
  • Lendemer, J.C. (2009) A synopsis of the lichen genus Heterodermia (Physciaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) in eastern North America. Opuscula Philolichenum 6: 1–36. (PDF file) (Heterodermia echinata discussed on pp. 12-13; Plate 14, p. 32, geographic distribution map)

Links to photos[edit]

Vernacular names[edit]

English: Flowering fringe lichen,   Shield lichen