Nelson, Joseph, S. (2006). Fishes of the World. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ISBN0471250317.
Nielsen, J. G., D. M. Cohen, D. F. Markle, and C. R. Robins. 1999. FAO species catalogue. Vol. 18. Ophidiiform fishes of the world (Order Ophidiiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of pearl-fishes, cusk-eels, brotulas and other ophidiiform fishes known to date. FAO Fisheries Synopsis. No. 125.