Canoparmelia caroliniana

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Canoparmelia caroliniana


Taxonavigation: Lecanorales 

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Fungi
Subregnum: Dikarya
Divisio: Ascomycota
Subdivisio: Pezizomycotina
Classis: Lecanoromycetes
Subclassis: Lecanoromycetidae
Ordo: Lecanorales

Familia: Parmeliaceae
Subfamilia: Parmelioideae
Genus: Canoparmelia
Species: Canoparmelia caroliniana



Canoparmelia caroliniana (Nyl.) Elix & Hale, 1986

  • Parmelia caroliniana Nyl., 1885

Substrate and ecology: (Sonoran region): Often on pines in montane, open pine-oak woods, rarely on rocks.


  • Pseudoparmelia caroliniana (Nyl.) Hale, 1974
  • Parmelia caroliniana Nyl. 1885


  • Elix, Johnston & Verdon, Mycotaxon 27: 278 (1986)
  • Elix, J.A.; Johnston, J. and Verdon, D. (1986) Canoparmelia, Paraparmelia and Relicinopsis, three new genera in the Parmeliaceae (lichenized Ascomycotina). - Mycotaxon 27: 271–282.   (RLL List # 129-46 / Rec.# 4931 - Recent Literature on Lichens) (Complete article)
  • Brodo, I.M., Sharnoff, S.D. and Sharnoff, S. (2001) Canoparmelia (pp. 211-212) In, Lichens of North America. Yale University Press, New Haven, 795 pages. (Description of C. caroliniana: pp. 211-212; distribution map for North America: p. 211; color photo: p. 212, plate 183)
  • Flenniken, D. (1999) Canoparmelia Elix & Hale (pp. 54-56) In The Macrolichens In West Virginia, 231 pages, 26 plates. (Published by D. Flenniken, 2273 Blachleyville Rd, Wooster, Ohio 44691) (Description of C. caroliniana: p. 55; color photo: plate 4, B)
  • Hale, M.E., Jr. (1976) A monograph of the lichen genus Pseudoparmelia Lynge (Parmeliaceae). - Smithsonian Contrib. Bot. 31: 1–62.   (RLL List # 95 / Rec.# 7477 - Recent Literature on Lichens) (Web site)
  • Nash III, T.H. and Elix, J.A. (2002) Canoparmelia (pp. 122-125) In: Nash III, T.H., Ryan, B.D, Gries, C. and Bungartz, F. (eds.), Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region, Vol. 1. Lichens Unlimited, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, 532 pages. (Description of C. caroliniana: pp. 123-124)
  • Zanetti, C. A.; Marcelli, M. P. and Jungbluth, P. 2015: Comparative anatomy of Canoparmelia and Crespoa species (Parmeliaceae, lichenized fungi). The Bryologist 118(2): 184–194. (DOI: 10.1639/0007-2745-118.2.184)   (Figure 1. Canoparmelia caroliniana.)

Vernacular names

English: Carolina shield lichen,   Carolina canoparmelia lichen