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  • Ponginae - includes living orangutans and the extinct Gigantopithecus and Sivapithecus genera.
  • Homininae - includes Homo sapiens and some extinct relatives such as Australopithecus, as well as the gorillas and the chimpanzees.


For combining all genera in one family, see Groves (1989). The genera are placed in two subfamilies by Groves (2001c): Ponginae (Pongo alone), and Homininae (Gorilla, Homo, Pan). McKenna and Bell (1997) included Hylobatidae in addition, as a subfamily, and within the Homininae recognized two living tribes, Pongini and Hominini; Goodman et al. (1998) recognized gibbons only as a tribe (Hylobatini), with the other three genera as a separate tribe (Hominini), divided into subtribes Pongina and Hominina; they included Pan in Homo, and Watson et al. (2001) included both Pan and Gorilla in Homo.