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Regnum: Plantae
Phylum: Charophyta
Classis: Charophyceae
Ordines: Charales - Coleochaetales - Desmidiales - Zygnematales


1. Charophyceae Smith, 1938; van den Hoek et al., 1995

  • Synonyms
    • Characeae Rabenhorst, 1863
    • Charophyta Migula, 1897

2. Charophyceae Stewart & Mattox, 1975

  • Synonyms
    • Charophyta Cavalier-Smith, 1993; Leliaert et al., 2012

Alternative classifications[edit]

Rabenhorst (1863)[edit]

Rabenhorst, G. L. Kryptogamen-flora von Sachsen, pp. xiv, 282, [1].


Smith (1938)[edit]

Cryptogamic Botany, vol. 1, [2].

Division Chlorophyta

Stewart & Mattox (1975)[edit]

Stewart, K. D. & Mattox, K. R. (1975). Comparative cytology, evolution and classification of the green algae with some consideration of the origin of other organisms with chlorophylls A and B, [3].

Green algae

Mattox & Stewart (1984)[edit]

Mattox, K. R. & Stewart, K. D. 1984. Classification of the green algae: a concept based on comparative cytology. Pp. 29‐72, In Irvine, D. E. G. & John, D. M. (eds.), The systematics of Green Algae. The Systematics Association, Special Vol. 27, Academic Press, London.

van den Hoek, Mann and Jahns (1995)[edit]

van den Hoek, C., Mann, D. G., & Jahns, H. M. (1995): Algae. An Introduction to Phycology. 1st ed. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, [4].


Adl et al. (2012)[edit]

The Revised Classification of Eukaryotes, [5].


[Notes: M, monotypic group with only one described species; P, paraphyletic group; R, ribogroup assembled from phylogenetic studies.]

For more multimedia, look at Charophyceae on Wikimedia Commons.