Sphaerophorus fragilis

From Wikispecies
Jump to navigation Jump to search


Taxonavigation: Lecanorales 

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Fungi
Subregnum: Dikarya
Divisio: Ascomycota
Subdivisio: Pezizomycotina
Classis: Lecanoromycetes
Subclassis: Lecanoromycetidae
Ordo: Lecanorales

Familia: Sphaerophoraceae
Genus: Sphaerophorus
Species: Sphaerophorus fragilis


Sphaerophorus fragilis (L.) Pers., 1794

Basionym: Lichen fragilis L., 1753


  • Cladonia fragilis (L.) F.H.Wigg., 1780
  • Coralloides fragilis (L.) Hoffm., 1794
  • Lecanora fragilis (Scop.) Zahlbr., 1928
  • Lichen caespitosus Roth, 1788
  • Lichen fragilis L., 1753
  • Sphaerophorus caespitosus (Roth) DC., 1805
  • Sphaerophorus coralloides var. caespitosus (Roth) Turner & Borrer, 1839
  • Sphaerophorus coralloides var. fragilis Taylor
  • Stereocaulon fragile (L.) Hoffm., 1796
  • Verrucaria fragilis (L.) Humb., 1796


Primary references[edit]

  • Pers., Ann. Bot. (Usteri) 1: 23 (1794)
  • Persoon, C.H. (1794) Einige Bemerkungen über die Flechten: Nebst Beschreibungen einiger neuer Arten aus dieser Familie der Aftermoose. - Ann. Bot. (Usteri) 7: 1–32. [1]


  • Brodo, I.M., Sharnoff, S.D. and Sharnoff, S. (2001) Sphaerophorus (pp. 657-659) In, Lichens of North America. Yale University Press, New Haven, 795 pages. (Description of S. fragilis and distribution map for North America: p. 658; color photo: p. 658, plate 804)
  • Dobson, F.S. (2000) (Fourth edition) Sphaerophorus (pp. 361-363) In, Lichens: An illustrated guide to the British and Irish species. The Richmond Publishing Co., Ltd., Slough, England, 431 pp. (Description of S. fragilis and color photo: p. 362; diagram of branching: p. 361)
  • Goward, T. 1999. The lichens of British Columbia - Illustrated Keys - Part 2 - Fruticose Species. Province of British Columbia, Ministry of Forests Research Program, 319 pp. (RLL List # 176 / Rec.# 6980 - Recent Literature on Lichens) Online Reference page. : Sphaerophorus Pers. (pp. 218-221) (Description of S. fragilis: p. 219)
  • Hinds, J.W. and Hinds, P.L. (2007) Sphaerophorus Pers., 1794 (pp. 447-449) In, The Macrolichens of New England. - Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden No. 96. New York Botanical Garden Press, Bronx, New York. 584 pp. (Description of S. fragilis: p. 448; color photo: p. 448, fig. 285)
  • Purvis, O.W. (1992) Sphaerophorus Pers., 1794 (pp. 568-569) In: Purvis, O.W., Coppins, B.J., Hawksworth, D.L., James, P.W. and Moore, D.M. (eds.) The Lichen Flora of Great Britain and Ireland. London: Natural History Museum Publication, 710 pp. (Description of S. fragilis: p. 568)
  • Selva, S.B. 2014: The calicioid lichens and fungi of the Acadian Forest ecoregion of northeastern North America, II. The rest of the story. The Bryologist 117(4): 336–367.   (BioOne)   (Sphaerophorus fragilis: pp. 361-362)
  • Wedin, M.; Högnabba, F. and Goward, T. (2009) A new species of Sphaerophorus, and a key to the family Sphaerophoraceae in western North America. The Bryologist 112(2): 368–374.
  • Wirth, V. (1995) Sphaerophorus Pers. (pp. 860-864) - Teil 2) In, Die Flechten Baden-Württembergs, Teil 1 & 2. Eugen Ulmer GmbH & Co., Stuttgart. 1006 pp.; in German. (Description of S. fragilis: p. 862; color photo: p. 863)


Links to photos[edit]

  • The Lichen Herbarium, Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Norway (Photo Gallery) - Sphaerophorus fragilis

Vernacular names[edit]

English: Fragile coral lichen,   Fragile ball lichen,   Ball-tip lichen