Solorina spongiosa

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Taxonavigation: Peltigerineae 

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Fungi
Subregnum: Dikarya
Divisio: Ascomycota
Subdivisio: Pezizomycotina
Classis: Lecanoromycetes
Subclassis: Lecanoromycetidae
Ordo: Peltigerales
Subordo: Peltigerineae

Familia: Peltigeraceae
Subfamilia: Peltigeroideae
Genus: Solorina
Species: Solorina spongiosa


Solorina spongiosa (Ach.) Anzi, 1862

Substrate and ecology: In moist, calcareous habitats similar to those of Solorina saccata

World distribution: Circumpolar Arctic-alpine in Europe and North America, and also in New Zealand

  • Collema spongiosum Ach., Lich. Univ.: 661 (1810)


  • Collema spongiosum Ach., Lich. univ.: 661 (1810)
  • Homodium spongiosum (Ach.) Boistel, 1903
  • Lecanora limbata Sommerf., Suppl. Fl. lapp. (Oslo): 1–333 (1826)
  • Leptogium spongiosum (Ach.) Nyl., 1855
  • Lichen spongiosus Sm., Engl. Bot. 20: tab. 1374 (1805)
  • Parmelia spongiosa (Ach.) Spreng., 1827
  • Polychidium spongiosum (Ach.) Gray, Nat. Arr. Brit. Pl. (London) 1: 1–824 (1821)
  • Solorina limbata (Sommerf.) Mudd, Man. Brit. Lich.: 85 (1861)
  • Solorina saccata var. spongiosa (Ach.) Nyl., 1860
  • Verrucaria spongiosa (Ach.) Ach., 1803


Primary references[edit]

  • Anzi, Comm. Soc. crittog. Ital. 1(no. 3): 136 (1862)
  • Anzi, M. 1862: Manipulus Lichenum rariorum vel novorum quos in Longobardia et Etruria collegit et enumeravit. - Commentario della societa crittogamologica Italiana\Comment. Soc. Crittog. Ital. 1: 130–166.   **[Mattick Rec.# 33045] - (Recent Literature on Lichens - Mattick No.)**

Additional references[edit]

  • Brodo, I.M.; Sharnoff, S.D. and Sharnoff, S. (2001) Solorina (pp. 654-656) In, Lichens of North America. Yale University Press, New Haven, 795 pages.   **[RLL List # 184 / Rec.# 22465] - (Recent Literature on Lichens)**   (Discussion of Solorina spongiosa and distribution map for North America: p. 656; color photo: p. 656, plate 802)
  • Dobson, F.S. (2000) (Fourth edition) Solorina (pp. 359-361) In, Lichens: An illustrated guide to the British and Irish species. The Richmond Publishing Co., Ltd., Slough, England, 431 pp.   **[RLL List # 164 / Rec.# 22402] - (Recent Literature on Lichens)**   (Discussion of Solorina spongiosa: p. 360; map and color photo: p. 361)
  • Gilbert, O.L. (1992) Solorina Ach. (1808) (pp. 566-567) In: Purvis, O.W., Coppins, B.J., Hawksworth, D.L., James, P.W. and Moore, D.M. (eds.) The Lichen Flora of Great Britain and Ireland. London: Natural History Museum Publication, 710 pp.   **[RLL List # 151 / Rec.# 15105] - (Recent Literature on Lichens)**   (Discussion of Solorina spongiosa: p. 567)
  • Ryan, B.D. and Vitikainen, O. (2004) Solorina (pp. 506-507) In: Nash III, T.H.; Ryan, B.D.; Diederich, P.; Gries, C. and Bungartz, F. (eds.), Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region, Vol. 2. Lichens Unlimited, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, 742 pages.   **[RLL List # 196 / Rec.# 25957] - (Recent Literature on Lichens)**   (Discussion of Solorina spongiosa: pp. 506-507)
  • Thomson, J.W. (1984) Solorina Ach., (pp. 385-392). In, American Arctic Lichens: 1. The Macrolichens. Columbia University Press, New York, 504 pages.   **[RLL List # 124-96 / Rec.# 18494] - (Recent Literature on Lichens)**   (Discussion of Solorina spongiosa: pp. 388 & 392; drawing and distribution map for the American arctic: p. 391)


Links to photos[edit]

  • The Lichen Herbarium, Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Norway (Photo Gallery) - Solorina spongiosa

Vernacular names[edit]

English: Fringed chocolate chip lichen,   Chocolate chip lichen