Protista

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Nuvola apps important.svg The status, affinity, scope or nomenclature of this taxon is disputed.

Please see discussion on the talk page.

Ammonia beccarii, Elphidium excavatum clavatum, Buccella frigida, Eggerella advena

分类[编辑]

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Protista
Subregna: Biciliata - Sarcomastigota - Incertae sedis Protista

[编辑]

See also: Chromista – Protozoa


Classifications[编辑]

[Note: Protista is currently considered a paraphyletic or polyphyletic taxon, and taxonomists prefer to use only monophyletic taxa. See Eukaryota for more modern classifications of the groups previously placed here.]

Haeckel (1866, I)[编辑]

Generelle morphologie der organismen, Bd. 1, pp. 206-220, [1].

Haeckel (1866, II)[编辑]

Generelle morphologie der organismen, Bd. 2, [2]. 参见: plate 1, "Monophyletischer Stammbaum der Organismen", [3].

Haeckel (1868a)[编辑]

Haeckel, E. 1868. Natürliche Schöpfungsgeschichte. 1st ed. Reimer, Berlin, [4]. See Dayrat (2003), [5].

  • "Polyphyletisher Stammbaum der Organismen" [p. 347]
    • Plantae
    • Protista” [polyphyletic]
      • Labyrinthuleae
      • Myxomycetes
      • Diatomeae
      • Monera Neutra
      • Protoplasta
      • Rhizopoda
      • Flagellata
    • Animalia
  • "Polyphyletisher Stammbaum des Pflanzenreichs" [p. 382]
    • Fucoideae
    • Florideae
    • Archephyceae
    • Archephyta [paraphyletic] + Chlorophyceae [polyphyletic] + Cormophyta
    • Lichenes
    • Fungi
  • "Polyphyletisher Stammbaum des Thierreichs" [p. 392]
    • Acephalae
    • Spongiae
    • Colelminthes
    • Acineta
    • Archezoa [paraphyletic] + Infusoria
    • Ciliata
    • Platyelminthes
    • Himatega
    • Nematelminthes
  • "Einstämmiger oder Monophyletisher Stammbaum der Organismen" [plate I, [6]]
    • Pflanzenreich, Pflanzenreichs
      • Florideae
      • Fucoideae
      • Chloralgae + Muscinae + Filicinae + Gymnospermae + Angiospermae
      • Lichenes
      • Fungi
    • Protistenreich, Protista
      • Diatomea
      • Labyrinthulae
      • Myxomycetes
      • Monera neutra + Rhizopoda
      • Noctilucae
      • Flagellata
      • Protoplasta
    • Thierreich, Animalia
      • Coelenterata
      • Scolecida
      • Vermes (Scolecida + Colelminthes + Himatega) + Arthropoda + Vertebrata + Mollusca

Haeckel (1868b)[编辑]

Haeckel, E. 1868. Monographie der Moneren. Jenaische Zeitschrift für Medicin und Naturwissenschaft 4: 64–144, [7]. See p. 122, 129-134. Translation: Monograph of Monera. Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science, 1869, IX: 27-42, 113-134, 219-232, 327-342.

Protista

  • Monera
    • Gymnomonera (Protamaeba, Protogenes, Myxodictyum)
    • Lepomonera (Protomonas, Protomyxa, Vampyrella, Myxastrum)
  • Flagellata
  • Labyrinthulea (Labyrinthulae)
  • Diatomea
  • Phycochromacea
  • Fungi (Mycetes)
    • Phycomycetes (Saprolegnieae, Mucorinae etc.)
    • Hypodermiae (Uredineae, Ustilagineae etc.)
    • Basidiomycetes (Hymenomycetes, Gastromycetes etc.)
    • Ascomycetes (Protomycetes, Discomytes etc.)
  • Myxomycetes
  • Protoplasta
  • Noctilucae
  • Rhizopoda

Haeckel (1878)[编辑]

Haeckel, E., 1878. Das Protistenreich. Eine Populäre Uebersicht über das Formengebiet der Niedersten Lebewesen. Ernst Günther's Verlag, Leipzig, 104 pp, [8].

Protista [p. 86-104]

Entz (1888)[编辑]

From Studien über Protisten, [9].

Protisten

  • Gregarinen
  • Rhizopoden
  • Flagellaten
  • Noctilucen
  • Ciliaten

Haeckel (1889)[编辑]

Haeckel, E. 1889. Natürliche Schöpfungsgeschichte, 8th ed, [10]. See p. 452, 453, 462, 508.

  • Protistenreich
    • Protophyta (Protista vegetalia)
      • Klass I. Phytarcha
        • Phytomonera
          • Ordnung 1. Probiontes
        • Chromaceae
          • Ordnung 2. Chroococceae
          • Ordnung 3. Nostochineae
      • Klass II. Diatomeae
      • Klass III. Cosmariae (Desmidieae)
      • Klass IV. Palmellariae (Palmellaceae)
      • Klass V. Siphoneae (Coeloblastae)
    • Protozoa (Protista animalia)
      • Zoarcha (Zoocytoda)
        • Zoomonera
          • Lobomonera
          • Rhizomonera
        • Bacteria
          • Sphaerobacteria
          • Rhabdobacteria
      • Cytarcha
        • Lobosa (Amoebina)
        • Gregarinae (Sporozoa)
      • Infusoria
        • Flagellata (Mastigophora)
        • Ciliata
        • Acinetae (Suctoria)
      • Rhizopoda
        • Mycetozoa (Myxomycetes)
        • Heliozoa
        • Thalamaria (Foraminifera)
        • Radiolaria
  • Pflanzenreich
    • Thallota (Thallophyta)
      • Algae (Phycophyta)
        • Zygnemaceae
        • Conferveae
        • Fucoideae
        • Florideae
        • Characeae
      • Fungi (Inophyta)
        • Mycetes
        • Lichenes
    • Prothallota (Mesophyta)
      • Bryophyta
      • Pteridophyta
    • Phanerogamae (Anthophyta)
      • Gymnospermae
        • Cycadeae
        • Coniferae
        • Gnetaceae
      • Angiospermae
        • Monocotylae
        • Dicotylae
  • Thierreich
    • Coelenteria (Coelenterata, Zoophyta, Anaemaria)
      • Gastraeades
      • Spongiae
      • Cnidaria
      • Platodes
    • Coelomaria (Bilaterata, Bilateria, Haemataria)
      • Helminthes
      • Mollusca
      • Echinoderma
      • Articulata
      • Tunicata
      • Vertebrata

Haeckel (1894)[编辑]

From Systematische phylogenie, 3 vols (vol. 1, Protisten und Pflanzen, 1894; vol. 2, Invertebrata, 1896; vol. 3, Vertebrata, 1895). [11].

[Vol. 1, p. 90-91:]

  • Pflanzen
    • Protophyta (Protista plasmodoma) [Vol. 1, p. 96]
      • Archephyta (Progonella)
        • Probiontes
        • Chromaceae (Phycochromaceae)
      • Algariae (Paulosporata)
        • Paulotomeae
        • Conjugatae
        • Diatomeae
      • Algettae (Zoosporata)
        • Mastigota
        • Melethallia
        • Siphoneae
    • Metaphyta (Histones plasmodomi) [Vol. 1, p. 256]
      • Thallophyta
        • Algae, [Vol. 1, p. 302]
          • Chlorophyceae
          • Charaphyceae
          • Phaeophyceae
          • Rhodophyceae
        • Mycetes [Vol. 1, p. 316]
          • Ascomycetes (Ascodiomycetes)
          • Basimycetes (Basidiomycetes)
        • Lichenes [Vol. 1, p. 325]
      • Diaphyta [Vol. 1, p. 330]
        • Bryophyta [Vol. 1, p. 336]
        • Pteridophyta
      • Anthophyta
        • Gymnospermae
        • Angiospermae
  • Thieren
    • Protozoa (Protista plasmophaga) [Vol. 1, p. 138]
      • Archezoa (= Zoarchega)
        • Bacteria (= Bactromonera)
          • Coccillida
          • Bacillida
          • Spirillida
        • Zoomonera (= Monera s. str.)
          • Lobomonera
          • Rhizomonera
      • Fungilli (= Sporozoa)
      • Rhizopoda
      • Infusoria
    • Metazoa (Histones plasmophagi)
      • Coelenteria (Acoelomia)
        • Gastraeades
        • Spongiae
        • Cnidaria
        • Platodes
      • Bilateria (Coelomaria)
        • Helminthes
        • Mollusca
        • Articulata
        • Echinoderma
        • Tunicata
        • Vertebrata

Walton (1930)[编辑]

Walton, Lee Barker. 1930. Studies concerning organisms occurring in water supplies with particular reference to those found in Ohio. Ohio Biological Survey Bulletin, 24: 1–86, link.

Kingdom Bionta

  • Subkingdom Protistodeae
    • Phylum Probiontaria
      • Class Microbiontoidea
        • Order Aphanobiontidea
        • Order Chlamydozoidea
      • Class Bacterioidea
      • Class Spirochaetoidea
    • Phylum Flagellaria
    • Phylum Protophytaria
    • Phylum Protozoaria
    • Phylum Myxomycetaria
  • Subkingdom Metaphytodeae
  • Subkingdom Metazoodeae

Copeland (1938)[编辑]

Copeland, H. F. The kingdoms of organisms. The Quarterly Review Of Biology Vol. 13, No. 4 (Dec., 1938), pp. 383-420, [12].

Barkley (1939)[编辑]

Barkley, Fred A. (1939). Keys to the phyla of organisms. Missoula, Montana, [13].

Barkley (1949)[编辑]

Barkley, Fred A. "Un esbozo de clasificación de los organismos." Revista de la Facultad Nacional de Agronomia, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín. 10: 83–103, [14].

Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology (1954-2005)[编辑]

From Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, [15].

Protista

[part B/1.1, 2005:]

[part B/1.2:]

[part C/2, 1964:]

[part D/3, 1954:]

Edmondson (1959)[编辑]

Edmondson, W.T. (ed). 1959. Freshwater biology. 2nd ed. Wiley, New York, [16].

Protista

Whittaker (1969)[编辑]

From New Concepts of Kingdoms of Organisms, [17].

  • Kingdom Monera
  • Kingdom Protista
    • Phylum Euglenophyta
    • Phylum Chrysophyta
    • Phylum Pyrrophyta
    • Phylum Hyphochytridiomycota
    • Phylum Plasmodiophoromycota
    • Phylum Sporozoa
    • Phylum Cnidosporidia
    • Phylum Zoomastigina
    • Phylum Sarcodina
    • Phylum Ciliophora
  • Kingdom Plantae
  • Kingdom Fungi
  • Kingdom Animalia

Loeblich (1974)[编辑]

Loeblich, A. R. (1974). Protistan Phylogeny as Indicated by the Fossil Record. Taxon 23 (2/3): 277–290, [18].

[p. 280]

[p. 282]

Whittaker & Margulis (1978)[编辑]

Whittaker, R. H. & Margulis, L. (1978). Protist classification and the kingdoms of organisms. Biosystems 10, 3–18.

[Note: "form-superphyla" or "form-phyla are “frankly polyphyletic groupings”.]

Cavalier-Smith (1981)[编辑]

Cavalier-Smith, T. (1981). Eukaryote kingdoms: seven or nine?. Biosystems, 14(3), 461-481, [19].

Nine eukaryote kingdoms proposal [p. 462]

  • Superkingdom Eukaryota
    • Kingdom 1. Eufungi
    • Kingdom 2. Ciliofungi
    • Kingdom 3. Animalia
    • Kingdom 4. Biliphyta
    • Kingdom 5. Viridiplantae
    • Kingdom 6. Euglenozoa
    • Kingdom 7. Protozoa
    • Kingdom 8. Cryptophyta
    • Kingdom 9. Chromophyta

Five eukaryote kingdoms proposal [p. 476-477]

  • Superkingdom Eukaryota
    • Kingdom 1. Fungi (Ciliofungi + Eufungi)
    • Kingdom 2. Chromista (Cryptophyta + Chromophyta)
    • Kingdom 3. Plantae (Viridiplantae + Biliphyta)
    • Kingdom 4. Protista (Euglenozoa + Protozoa)
    • Kingdom 5. Animalia

Seven eukaryote kingdoms proposal [p. 478]

  • Superkingdom Eukaryota
    • Kingdom Fungi
    • Kingdom Viridiplantae
    • Kingdom Biliphyta
    • Kingdom Chromista
    • Kingdom Animalia
    • Kingdom Euglenozoa
      • Phylum Euglenozoa
        • Euglenida
        • Kinetoplastida
    • Kingdom Protozoa
      • Phylum Proterozoa (proteromonads, cyathobodonids, Opalinida)
      • Phylum Dinozoa (dinoflagellates)
      • Phylum Parabasalia (trichomonads and hypermastigids)
      • Phylum Metamonadina (retortomonads, diplomonads, and oxymonads)
      • Phylum Sporozoa (cregarines, coccidlans, and piroplasms)
      • Phylum Infusoria (Ciliophora)
      • Phylum Foraminifera
      • Phylum Sarcodina (amoebae, amoeboflagellates, slime moulds (Mycetozoa), Radiolaria, Heliozoa, Acantharia, Myxosporea, Microsporea)

Parker et al. (1982)[编辑]

Parker, S. P. (ed.). 1982. Synopsis and classification of living organisms. 2 vols. McGraw-Hill, New York, [20], [21]. See Brands (1989-2005 ), [22]

Superkingdom Prokaryotae

  • Kingdom Virus
  • Kingdom Monera

Superkingdom Eukaryotae

  • Kingdom Plantae
    • Subkingdom Thallobionta
      • Division Rhodophycota
      • Division Chromophycota
      • Division Euglenophycota
      • Division Chlorophycota
      • Division Myxomycota
      • Division Eumycota
    • Subkingdom Embryobionta
    • Genus Echites
  • Kingdom Protista (Haeckel, 1866)
    • Phylum Euprotista [“containing the grat majority of protistans”]
    • Phylum Gymnomyxa
      • Subphylum Mycetozoa
      • Subphylum Plasmodiophorina
      • Subphylum Labyrinthulina
  • Kingdom Animalia 1758
    • Subkingdom Protozoa (Goldfuss,1818)
      • Phylum Sarcomastigophora (Honigberg & Balamuth,1963)
      • Phylum Labyrinthulata
      • Phylum Apicomplexa Levine, 1970
      • Phylum Microspora Sprague, 1977
      • Phylum Myxozoa Grassé, 1970
      • Phylum Ascetospora
      • Phylum Ciliophora Doflein, 1901
    • Subkingdom Phagocytellozoa
      • Phylum Placozoa Grell, 1971
    • Subkingdom Parazoa (Sollas,1884)
      • Phylum Porifera Grant, in Todd, 1836
    • Subkingdom Eumetazoa (Butschli,1910)

[Note: this classification is redundant for some ambiregnal protists. See Taylor et al. (1986), [23].]

Corliss (1984)[编辑]

From The kingdom Protista and its 45 phyla [24].

Kingdom Protista Haeckel, 1866

Hausmann et al. (1985)[编辑]

Hausmann, K., Mulisch, M. & Patterson, D. J. 1985. Protozoologie. Thieme Verlag: Stuttgart, [25].

Protisten

  • Stamm Sarcomastigophora
  • Stamm Labyrinthomorpha
  • Stamm Apicomplexa
  • Stamm Microspora
  • Stamm Ascetospora
  • Stamm Myxozoa
  • Stamm Ciliophora

de Puytorac et al. (1987)[编辑]

From Puytorac, P. de, Grain, J., Mignot, J.P. Précis de protistologie. Lubrecht & Cramer Ltd, 1987. 581 p., [26], [27], [28]. See Fernández-Galiano, 1990, [29].

Protista

Patterson (1988)[编辑]

Patterson, D. J. 1988. The evolution of Protozoa. Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, 83 (suppl. 1): 580–600, [30].

[Fig. 1. Hypothetical sequence of derivation of major groups]

[Table 1. Major groups of protists distinguished by ultrastructural identity]

Sleigh (1989)[编辑]

Sleigh, M. (1989). Protozoa and Other Protists. 2nd ed. Edward Arnold, London, [31], [32].

"four sets of protistan phyla"

Karpov (1990)[编辑]

Карпов С.А. (1990). Система протистов. Омск: Изд-во Омского пед, [33].

Karpov S.A. (1990). System of Protists. Mezhvuzovskaia tipograf. Omsk: OmPi (in Russian, with English summary).

Kingdom Protista

Alimov et al. (2000, 2007)[编辑]

Alimov, A. F. ed. (А. Ф. Алимов). 2000. Protista 1: Handbook on zoology (Протисты 1: руководство по зоологии). St. Petersburg: Nauka, 2000, 679 pp. (in Russian, with English summaries), [34].

Alimov, A. F. ed. (А. Ф. Алимов). 2007. Protista 2: Handbook on zoology. (Протисты 2: руководство по зоологии). St. Petersburg: Nauka, 2007, 1141 pp. (in Russian, with English summaries), [35].

[Vol. 1, p. 137:]

Protists

[Vol. 2:]

[Notes:

  • the groups with (3) are treated in vol. 3;
  • some groups of protists not traditional for protozoologists (e.g., Xantophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, Hyphochytridia) were not treated in the series.]

Pugachev et al. (2011)[编辑]

Pugachev, O. N. ed. (О.Н. Пугачев). 2011. Protista 3: Guide-book on zoology. (Протисты 3: руководство по зоологии). St. Petersburg: KMK Scientific Press, 474 pp. (in Russian, with English summaries), [36], [37].

Protists (Eukaryota)

[Note: numbers indicate volume in which the groups were treated.]

Simpson et al. (2017)[编辑]

Simpson, A. G. B., Slamovits, C. H. & Archibald, J. M., (2017). Protist diversity and eukaryote phylogeny. In: Archibald, J.M., Simpson, A.G.B., Slamovits, C. (Eds.). Handbook of the Protists (2nd edition of the Handbook of Protoctista by Margulis et al.). Springer, continuously updated edition, 2016-2017, 43 chapters, [38]. [2012 version flyer, not published: [39].]

"protists"


[(*): groups not covered in the Handbook]

参见:[编辑]

参考文献[编辑]

其他语言[编辑]

Afrikaans: Protiste
Alemannisch: Protischte
العربية: طلائعيات
asturianu: Protista
অসমীয়া: প্ৰটিষ্টা
azərbaycanca: İbtidailər
Boarisch: Prótisten
башҡортса: Протистар
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Пратысты
беларуская: Пратысты
български: Протиста
বাংলা: প্রোটিস্ট
bosanski: Protisti
català: Protist
کوردی: شانشینی پێشەنگییەکان
corsu: protisti
čeština: Prvoci / Protisté
Cymraeg: Protosoa
dansk: Protozo / Protister / Protist
Deutsch: Einzeller / Protozoen
Zazaki: Protista
Ελληνικά: Πρώτιστα
English: Protozoa / Protophyta / Protoctista / Protist
Esperanto: Protistoj
español: Protozoo, Protista
eesti: Protistid, Algloomad
euskara: Protista
فارسی: تک‌یاختگان
suomi: Alkueliöt
Nordfriisk: Uurdiarten
français: Protistes
עברית: פרוטיסטים
हिन्दी: प्रोटिस्ट
hrvatski: Protisti
Kreyòl ayisyen: Pwotis
magyar: Véglények, protiszták
հայերեն: Միաբջիջներ, Պրոտոզոններ, Պրոտոզոաներ
interlingua: Protistas
Bahasa Indonesia: Protista
Ido: Protisto
íslenska: Frumdýr
italiano: Protisti
日本語: 原生生物
ქართული: პროტისტები
қазақша: Споралылар
ភាសាខ្មែរ: បឋមត្ថិកសត្វ
한국어: 원생생물
Lëtzebuergesch: Protoctista
lietuvių: Protistai
latviešu: protisti
македонски: Протисти
മലയാളം: പ്രോട്ടിസ്റ്റ
मराठी: प्रोटिस्टा
Bahasa Melayu: Protis
Nederlands: Protisten
norsk nynorsk: Protistar
norsk: Protister
occitan: Protista
polski: Protisty
پنجابی: پروٹسٹ
português: Protista
Runa Simi: Ch'ulla kawsaykuq
română: Protiste
русский: Протисты / Простейшие
саха тыла: Протистар
සිංහල: ප්‍රෝටිස්ටා රාජධානිය
slovenčina: Prvoky
slovenščina: Protisti
svenska: Urdjur / Protozoer / Protister
தமிழ்: அதிநுண்ணுயிரி
తెలుగు: ప్రోటిస్టా
ไทย: โปรติสต์
lea faka-Tonga: Meʻamoʻuimuʻa
Türkçe: Protista
українська: Найпростіші
اردو: اولانیات
vepsän kel’: Protistad
Tiếng Việt: Sinh vật nguyên sinh
ייִדיש: פראטיסטן
粵語: 原生生物
中文: 原生生物
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