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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Supergroup: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladi: Animalia (regnum) - Choanomonada - Fungi (regnum) - Mesomycetozoa


Opisthokonta Cavalier-Smith 1987, emend. Adl et al. 2005

Alternative classifications[编辑]

Vischer (1945)[编辑]

Vischer, W. (1945). Über einen pilzähnlichen, autotrophen Mikroorganismus, Chlorochytridion, einige neue Protococcales und die systematische Bedeutung der Chloroplasten. Verhandlungen der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Basel 6: 41–49. From Leadbeater (2015), [1].

Opistokontae (Pulselloflagellatae)

  • choanoflagellates
  • chytrids
  • ”some uniflagellate algal monads”

Gams (1947)[编辑]

Gams, H. (1947). Die Protochlorinae als autotrophe Vorfahren von Pilzen und Tieren? Mikroskopie, 2, 383–7, [2]. From Leadbeater (2015) and Copeland (1956).


  • choanoflagellates
  • chytrids
  • ”some uniflagellate algal monads” [Protochlorinae? Pedilomonas, Chlorochytridion?]
  • metazoans
  • sporozoans

Rothmaler (1951)[编辑]

Rothmaler, Werner. (1951). Die Abteilungen und Klassen der Pflanzen. Feddes Rep Spec Nov Reg Veg 3: 256–266, [3], [4].

Copeland (1956)[编辑]

Copeland, H. F. (1956). The Classification of Lower Organisms. Palo Alto: Pacific Books, [5].

  • Kingdom Protoctista
    • Phylum Opisthokonta
      • Class Archimycetes
        • Order 1. Monoblepharidalea
        • Order 2. Chytridinea

Cavalier-Smith (1987)[编辑]

Cavalier-Smith, T. (1987). The origin of fungi and pseudofungi. In: Rayner, Alan D. M. (ed.). Evolutionary biology of Fungi. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press. pp. 339–353. From Leadbeater (2015).


  • choanoflagellates
  • animals
  • fungi

Hausmann et al. (2003)[编辑]

From Hausmann, K., N. Hulsmann, R. Radek. Protistology. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchshandlung, Stuttgart, 2003.

Empire Eukaryota Chatton, 1925 (= Eukarya)

Adl et al. (2012)[编辑]

Adl, S.M. et al. (2012). The revised classification of eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 59 (5): 429–514, [6].


[Notes: M, monotypic group with only one described species; P, paraphyletic group; R, ribogroup assembled from phylogenetic studies.]

Karpov et al. (2014)[编辑]

Karpov, S. A., Mamkaeva, M. A., Aleoshin, V. V., Nassonova, E., Lilje, O., & Gleason, F. H. (2014). Morphology, phylogeny, and ecology of the aphelids (Aphelidea, Opisthokonta) and proposal for the new superphylum Opisthosporidia. Frontiers in Microbiology, 5: 112. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2014.00112.

Opisthokonta Cavalier-Smith, 1987

Ruggiero et al. (2015)[编辑]

Ruggiero, M.A., Gordon, D.P., Orrell, T.M., Bailly, N., Bourgoin, T., Brusca, R.C., Cavalier-Smith, T., Guiry, M. D. & Kirk, P. M. (2015). A Higher Level Classification of All Living Organisms. PLoS ONE 10(4): e0119248, [7].

Toruella et al. (2015)[编辑]

Torruella, Guifré, et al. Phylogenomics reveals convergent evolution of lifestyles in close relatives of animals and fungi. Current Biology 25: 1–7, [8].



  • Cavalier-Smith, T. 2009: Megaphylogeny, cell body plans, adaptive zones: causes and timing of eukaryote basal radiations. Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 56: 26–33. doi: 10.1111/j.1550-7408.2008.00373.x
  • Philip, G.K.; Creevey, C.J.; McInerney, J.O. 2005: The Opisthokonta and the Ecdysozoa May Not Be Clades: Stronger Support for the Grouping of Plant and Animal than for Animal and Fungi and Stronger Support for the Coelomata than Ecdysozoa. Molecular biology and evolution, 22: 1175–1184. doi: 10.1093/molbev/msi102
  • Steenkamp, E.T.; Wright, J.; Baldauf, S.L. 2006: The protistan origins of animals and fungi. Molecular biology and evolution, 23: 93–106. doi: 10.1093/molbev/msj011


Vernacular names[编辑]

Ελληνικά: Οπισθόκοντα
English: Opisthokont
français: Opisthocontes, opisthocontes
македонски: Заднокамшични
日本語: オピストコンタ
Tiếng Việt: Sinh vật lông roi sau
中文: 动基体类