Letharia vulpina

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Letharia vulpina


Taxonavigation: Lecanorales 

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Fungi
Subregnum: Dikarya
Divisio: Ascomycota
Subdivisio: Pezizomycotina
Classis: Lecanoromycetes
Subclassis: Lecanoromycetidae
Ordo: Lecanorales

Familia: Parmeliaceae
Subfamilia: Parmelioideae
Genus: Letharia
Species: Letharia vulpina


Letharia vulpina (L.) Hue, Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat., Ser. 4, 1(1): 57 (1899). [MycoBank #393671] (nom. cons.)

Substrate and ecology (Sonoran region): On bark or wood, usually the trunks or branches of living or dead conifers or man-made wooden structures, rarely on acidic rock.


  • Lichen vulpinus L., Sp. Pl. 2: 1155 (1753). [MycoBank #394625]

Homotypic synonyms[edit]

  • Usnea vulpina (L.) Hoffm., Deutschl. Fl. Bot. Taschenbuch. 2: 138 (1796). [MycoBank #408548]
  • Parmelia vulpina (L.) Ach., Meth. Lich. (2): 267 (1803). [MycoBank #398491]
  • Cornicularia vulpina (L.) DC., Fl. Franç. (ed. 3) 2: 329 (1805). [MycoBank #383743]
  • Evernia vulpina (L.) Ach., Lichenogr. Universalis.: 443 (1810). [MycoBank #384992]
  • Chlorea vulpina (L.) Nyl., Mém. Soc. Imp. Sci. Nat. Cherbourg 3: 170 (1855). [MycoBank #382697] (nom. rej.)
  • Alectoria vulpina (L.) Mudd, Man. Brit. Lich.: 71 (1861). [MycoBank #375936]
  • Rhytidocaulon vulpinum (L.) Elenkin, Bull. Jard. Imp. Bot. Pierre le Grand 16(2): 264 (1916). [MycoBank #404135] (nom. rej.)


  • Acharius, E. 1803. Methodus qua omnes detectos Lichenes secundum organa carpomorpha ad Genera, Species et Varietates redigere atque observationibus illustrare tentavit Erik Acharius., Sect. 1: 1–52, i–lv, 1–152, Sect. 2: 153–393, pl. 1–8. BHL Reference page
  • Acharius, E. 1810. Lichenographia Universalis. In qua Lichenes omnes detectos, adiectis observationibus et figuris horum vegetabilium naturam et organorum carpomorphorum structuram illustrantibus, ad genera, species, varietates differentiis et observationibus sollicite definitas.: 1–696, pl. 1–14. BHL Reference page
  • Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species plantarum, exhibentes plantas rite cognitas, ad genera relatas, cum differentiis specificis, nominibus trivialibus, synonymis selectis, locis natalibus, secundum systema sexuale digestas. Tomus II. Pp. 561–1200, [1–30, index], [1, err.]. Impensis Laurentii Salvii, Holmiae [Stockholm]. BHL Reference page
  • Mudd, W.A. 1861. A manual of British lichens, containing descriptions of all the species and varieties, and five plates, with figures of the spores of one hundred and thirty species, illustrative of the genera.: i–viii, 1–309, i–xxii, pls. I–V. BHL HathiTrust Reference page

  • Brodo, I.M., Sharnoff, S.D. and Sharnoff, S. (2001) Letharia (pp. 411-413) In, Lichens of North America. Yale University Press, New Haven, 795 pages. (Description of L. vulpina and distribution map for North America: p. 412; full page color photo: page 413, plate 468)
  • Goward, T. 1999. The lichens of British Columbia - Illustrated Keys - Part 2 - Fruticose Species. Province of British Columbia, Ministry of Forests Research Program, 319 pp. (RLL List # 176 / Rec.# 6980 - Recent Literature on Lichens) Online Reference page. : Letharia (Th. Fr.) Zahlbr. (pp. 183-184) (Description of L. vulpina: p. 184; drawing: p. 183)
  • Hale, M.E. and Cole, M. (1988) Letharia (Th. Fr.) Zahlbr. (pp. 155-156) In Lichens of California. University of California Press, 254 pages. (Description of L. vulpina: pp. 155-156; color photo on cover; range map: p. 242, fig. 75a)
  • McCune, B. and Geiser, L. (1997) Letharia (p. 147-148) Macrolichens of the Pacific Northwest. Oregon State University Press, Corvallis, 386 pp. (Description of L. vulpina and color photo: p. 148)
  • Ryan, B.D. (2002) Letharia (pp. 267-270) In: Nash III, T.H., Ryan, B.D, Gries, C. and Bungartz, F. (eds.), Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region, Vol. 1. Lichens Unlimited, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, 532 pages. (Description of L. vulpina: pp. 269-270; distribution map for the Sonoran region: p. 269)


Linksto photos[edit]

  • The Lichen Herbarium, Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Norway (Photo Gallery) - Letharia vulpina

Vernacular names[edit]

English: Wolf lichen,   Timber wolf