Ilex aquifolium

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Ilex aquifolium, Massís del Montseny, Catalunya, Spain
Ilex aquifolium, Bucey-lès-Gy, Haute-Saône, France
Ilex aquifolium, Baden-Württemberg, Deutschland

Taxonavigation[edit]

Taxonavigation: Aquifoliales 
Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Euasterids II
Ordo: Aquifoliales

Familia: Aquifoliaceae
Genus: Ilex
Species: Ilex aquifolium

Name[edit]

Ilex aquifolium L., Sp. Pl. 1: 125. 1753.

Synonyms[edit]

  • Homotypic
  • Heterotypic
    • Aquifolium croceum Raf., Sylva Tellur.: 44. 1838.
    • Aquifolium ferox (Aiton) Mill. ex Raf., Sylva Tellur.: 44. 1838.
    • Aquifolium heterophyllum Raf., Sylva Tellur.: 44. 1838.
    • Aquifolium lanceolatum Raf., Sylva Tellur.: 44. 1838.
    • Aquifolium planifolium Raf., Sylva Tellur.: 44. 1838.
    • Aquifolium spinosum Lam., Fl. Franç. 3: 652. 1779.
    • Aquifolium undulatum Raf., Sylva Tellur.: 44. 1838.
    • Aquifolium vulgare St.-Lag., Ann. Soc. Bot. Lyon 7: 128. 1880.
    • Ilex aquifolium f. albopicta (Loudon) Geerinck, Taxonomaniac 1: 12. 2001.
    • Ilex aquifolium f. aureopicta (Loudon) Geerinck, Taxonomaniac 1: 12. 2001.
    • Ilex aquifolium f. frivaldskyana Loes., Nova Acta Acad. Caes. Leop.-Carol. German. Nat. Cur. 78: 262. 1901.
    • Ilex aquifolium var. barcinonae Pau, Mem. Mus. Ci. Nat. Barcelona, Ser. Bot. 1(1): 32. 1922.
    • Ilex aquifolium var. camelliifolia K.Koch
    • Ilex aquifolium var. crassifolia Aiton, Hort. Kew. 1: 169. 1789.
    • Ilex aquifolium var. ferox Aiton, Hort. Kew. 1: 169. 1789.
    • Ilex aquifolium var. heterophylla Aiton, Hort. Kew. 1: 169. 1789.
    • Ilex aquifolium var. nigricans Göpp.
    • Ilex aquifolium var. recurva Aiton, Hort. Kew. 1: 169. 1789.
    • Ilex balearica Desf., Hist. Arbr. France 2: 262. 1809.
    • Ilex camelliifolia Carrière, Rev. Hort. 59: 234.. 1887.
    • Ilex camelliifolia (K.Koch) A.Henry in H.J.Elwes & A.Henry,, Trees Great Britain 7: 1714. 1913.
    • Ilex canadensis hort. ex Decne., Fl. Serres Jard. Eur. 9: 184. 1854.
    • Ilex chrysocarpa Wender., Index Seminum (MB, Marburgensis) 1828: 3. 1828.
    • Ilex ciliata Vilm., Bon Jard. 1860: 1173. 1860.
    • Ilex ciliata hort. ex Koehne, Deut. Dendrol. 369. 1893.
    • Ilex citriocarpa Murr, Allg. Bot. Z. Syst. 18: 161. 1912.
    • Ilex crassifolia Aiton ex Steud., Nomencl. Bot., ed. 2, 1: 802. 1840.
    • Ilex echinata Mill., Gard. Dict. ed. 8: n.º 2. 1768.
    • Ilex ferox Aiton ex Steud., Nomencl. Bot., ed. 2, 1: 802. 1840.
    • Ilex fischeri hort. ex Carrière, Rev. Hort. (Paris) 59: 43. 1887.
    • Ilex heterophylla G.Don, Gen. Hist. 2: 17. 1832.
    • Ilex maderensis Willd., Enum. Pl. Suppl.: 8. 1814.
    • Ilex nigricans (Göpp.) A.Henry in H.J.Elwes & A.Henry,, Trees Great Britain 7: 1714. 1913.
    • Ilex platyphylla hort. ex Booth, Fl. Serres Jard. Eur. 9: 184. 1854.
    • Ilex sempervirens Salisb., Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton: 70. 1796.
    • Ilex vulgaris Gray, Nat. Arr. Brit. Pl. 2: 491. . 1821.

Homonyms[edit]

  • Ilex aquifolium Marsh. = Ilex opaca Soland. ex Aiton

Distribution[edit]

Native distribution areas:
Ilex aquifolium
  • Continental: Europe
    • Regional: Northern Europe
      • Denmark, Great Britain, Ireland (Irish republic), Norway, Sweden (extinct).
    • Regional: Middle Europe
      • Austria, Belgium (Luxembourg), Germany, Netherlands, Switzerland.
    • Regional: Southwestern Europe
      • Baleares (Mallorca), Corse, France, Portugal, Sardegna, Spain (Andorra, Spain (mainland))
    • Regional: Southeastern Europe
      • Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, Italy, Romania (doubtfully native), Sicilia (Sicily), Yugoslavia (Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, Slovenia).
    • Regional: Eastern Europe
  • Continental: Africa
    • Regional: Macaronesia
      • Madeira (Madeira; introduced).
    • Regional: Northern Africa
      • Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia.
  • Continental: Asia-Temperate
    • Regional: Western Asia
      • East Aegean Islands (Lesvos), Lebanon-Syria (Lebanon, Syria), Turkey.
  • Continental: Australasia
    • Regional: Australia
      • New South Wales, South Australia (introduced).
    • Regional: New Zealand
      • Chatham Islands (introduced).
  • Continental: Pacific
    • Regional: North-Central Pacific
      • Hawaii (Hawaiian Islands: Maui, Hawaii Island; introduced)
  • Continental: Northern America
    • Regional: Western Canada
      • British Columbia (introduced).
    • Regional: Eastern Canada
      • Ontario (introduced).
    • Regional: Northwestern U.S.A.
      • Oregon, Washington (introduced).
    • Regional: Southwestern U.S.A.
      • California (introduced).

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDGW – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition

References[edit]

Links[edit]

Vernacular names[edit]

aragonés: Cardonera
العربية: بهشية مائية الأوراق
български: Бодливолистен джел
brezhoneg: Kelenn
català: Grèvol
corsu: Caracutu
čeština: Cesmína ostrolistá
Cymraeg: Celyn
dansk: Almindelig Kristtorn
Deutsch: Europäische Stechpalme
English: European Holly
Esperanto: Ordinara ilekso
español: Acebo
euskara: Gorosti
فارسی: خاس کریسمس
suomi: Orjanlaakeri
français: Houx commun
galego: Acivro
hrvatski: Božika
magyar: Közönséges magyal
Ido: Ilexo
íslenska: Kristþyrnir
italiano: Agrifoglio
日本語: セイヨウヒイラギ
lumbaart: Scanfòi
lietuvių: Dygialapis bugienis
македонски: Бодлика
Nederlands: Hulst
norsk nynorsk: Kristtorn
norsk: Kristtorn
Nouormand: Housse
occitan: Houx
polski: Ostrokrzew kolczasty
português: Azevinho
Runa Simi: Asiwu
русский: Падуб остролистный
sardu: Agrivoddu
slovenčina: Cezmína ostrolistá
slovenščina: Navadna bodika
Seeltersk: Dulle-Huunde
svenska: Järnek
Türkçe: Çoban Püskülü
українська: Падуб гостролистовий
Zeêuws: 'Ulst
中文(简体)‎: 欧洲冬青
中文(繁體)‎: 歐洲冬青
中文(台灣)‎: 歐洲冬青
中文: 歐洲冬青
Wikimedia Commons For more multimedia, look at Ilex aquifolium on Wikimedia Commons.