Homo sapiens sapiens

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Anterior view of human female and male, with labels 2
Posterior view of human female and male, without labels
Carolus Linnaeus

Taxonavigation[sửa]

Taxonavigation: Hominoidea 
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Subregnum: {{Expansion depth limit exceeded|Eumetazoa}} Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Cladus: Craniata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Cladus: Synapsida
Cladus: Eupelycosauria
Cladus: Sphenacodontia
Cladus: Sphenacodontoidea
Ordo: Therapsida
Cladus: Theriodontia
Subordo: Cynodontia
Infraordo: Eucynodontia
Cladus: Probainognathia
Cladus: Prozostrodontia
Cladus: Mammaliaformes
Classis: Mammalia
Subclassis: Trechnotheria
Infraclassis: Zatheria
Supercohort: Theria
Cohort: Eutheria
Cohort: Placentalia
Superordo: Boreoeutheria
Superordo: Euarchontoglires
Ordo: Primates
Subordo: Haplorhini
Infraordo: Simiiformes
Parvordo: Catarrhini
Superfamilia: Hominoidea

Familia: Hominidae
Subfamilia: Homininae
Tribus: Hominini
Subtribus: Hominina
Genus: Homo
Species: Homo sapiens
Subspecies: Homo sapiens sapiens

Name[sửa]

Homo sapiens sapiens (informal)

Type data[sửa]

  • Linnaeus is designated as the lectotype of H. sapiens (Stearn, 1959; see also Notton & Stringer, n.d.).

Notes:[sửa]

  • H. s. sapiens was not truly used by Linnaeus (1758) or Stearn (1959). It was misattributed to Linnaeus by Bailey (1946).
  • The name has at least three meanings:
    • In the 1940s, H. s. sapiens was used as a synonym for Linnaeus' H. s. europaeus (Bailey, 1946, p. 356; Hall, 1946, p. 359). Linnaeus originally named four geographical subspecies of Homo sapiens: europaeus, afer, asiaticus and americanus. Building on Linnaeus' taxonomic work, Baker differentiated in 1974 between six geographical subspecies of Homo sapiens: australasicus (Bory, 1825), albus (Gmelin, 1788), afer, hottentotus (Bory, 1825), asiaticus and americanus. Baker notes that the correct name for the subspecies H. s. albus is disputed: possibly H. s. sapiens or H. s. europaeus (Linnaeus, 1758; Baker, 1974). This division of the extant human populations into taxonomic subspecies was gradually given up in the 1970s (e.g., Thenius et al., 1975).
    • H. s. sapiens was used for Cro-Magnon Man by some authors who classified Neanderthals (H. s. neanderthalensis) as a subspecies of H. sapiens (e.g., Pearce, 1971; Szalay and Delson, 1979).
    • More recently, H. s. sapiens was also used in a wider sense for anatomically modern humans by some authors who classified Herto Man (H. s. idaltu) as subspecies of H. sapiens (White et al., 2003).

References[sửa]

  • Bailey, J. W., 1946. The Mammals of Virginia. Richmond: Williams Printing. Google.
  • Baker, J. R., 1974. Race. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 624-625. PDF
  • Bory de Saint-Vincent, G. J., 1825. Homme. Homo. In: Audouin, I. B. et al., 1825. Dictionnaire classique d ’histoire naturelle. Vol. 8. Paris: Rey & Gravier, pp. 269-346. BHL
  • Gmelin, J. F., 1788. See Linneus, C., 1788
  • Hall, E. R., 1946. Zoological Subspecies of Man at the Peace Table. Journal of Mammalogy 27 (4): 358–364. JSTOR.
  • Hall, E. R., 1960. Zoological Subspecies of Man. Mankind Quarterly 1 (2): 113-119. Google.
  • Linneus, C., 1758. Systema naturea per regna tria naturea: secundum classes, ordines, genera, species. 10th edit. Vol. I. Holmize (Salvius). BHL
  • Linneus, C., 1788. Systema naturae per regna tria naturae: secundum classes, ordines, genera, species. 13th edit. Vol. I, Part 1. Edited by Gmelin, J. F.. Lipsiae (Beer). BHL
  • Notton, D., & Stringer, C., undated. Who is the type of Homo sapiens?. International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. ICZN.
  • Pearce, E. K. V., 1971. Proto-neolithic Adam and Recent Anthropology. Journal of the American Scientific Affiliation 23: 130-39. JASA.
  • Stearn, W. T., 1959. The background of Linnaeus's contributions to the nomenclature and methods of systematic biology. Systematic zoology 8: 4–22. JSTOR
  • Szalay, F. S. & Delson, E., 1979. Evolutionary History of the Primates. Academic Press, p. 508. Google.
  • Thenius, E., Hemmer, H. & Klinghammer, E., 1975. Human origins. In: Grzimek, B. (ed.), Animal life encyclopedia, Vol. II, Mammals II. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. Google.
  • White, Tim D.; Asfaw, B.; DeGusta, D.; Gilbert, H.; Richards, G. D.; Suwa, G.; Howell, F. C., 2003: Pleistocene Homo sapiens from Middle Awash, Ethiopia. Nature, 423: 742–747. PDF.

Vernacular names[sửa]

Afrikaans: Mens
aragonés: Sers umans
العربية: إنسان
asturianu: Humanos
অসমীয়া: মানুহ
Aymar aru: Jaqi
bem: Muntu
be: Muntu
български: Човек
বাংলা: মানুষ
brezhoneg: Den
bosanski: Čovjek
català: Humà
čeština: Člověk
Чӑвашла: Тăнлă çын
Cymraeg: Dyn
dansk: Menneske
Deutsch: Mensch
ཇོང་ཁ: Omo dapeonz
Ελληνικά: Άνθρωπος
English: Human
Esperanto: Homo
español: Humano
eesti: Inimene
euskara: Gizakia
فارسی: انسان
suomi: Ihminen
arpetan: Humen
français: Humain
Frysk: Minske
Gaeilge: Duine
galego: Ser humano
עברית: אדם נבון מודרני
हिन्दी: इंसान, मनुष्य, मानव
hrvatski: Suvremeni čovjek
Kreyòl ayisyen: Lòm
magyar: Ember
interlingua: Esser human
Bahasa Indonesia: Manusia
Ido: Homo
íslenska: Maður
italiano: Uomo
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: Inuk
日本語: 人
la .lojban.: remna
한국어: 사람(아종)
kurdî: Mirov
kernowek: Tus
Latina: Homo
Limburgs: Mins
lingála: Moto
lietuvių: Žmogus
latviešu: Mūsdienu saprātīgais cilvēks
македонски: Човек
മലയാളം: മനുഷ്യന്‍
Bahasa Melayu: Manusia
Malti: bniedem
Nāhuatl: Tlācatl
Plattdüütsch: Minsch
Nederlands: Mens
norsk nynorsk: Menneske
norsk: Menneske
Diné bizaad: Diné
Ирон: Адæймаг
polski: Człowiek współczesny · Człowiek rozumny współczesny
português: Humano
Runa Simi: Runa
română: Om
русский: Человек разумный
sicilianu: Umanu
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Čovjek
slovenčina: Človek rozumný
slovenščina: Misleči človek
shqip: Njeriu
српски / srpski: Човек
svenska: Människa
Kiswahili: Binadamu
syl: ꠝꠣꠘꠥ, ꠝꠣꠁꠘ꠆ꠡ
தமிழ்: மனிதன்
ไทย: มนุษย์
Tagalog: Tao
Türkçe: İnsan
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: ئىنساننىڭ
українська: Людина
اردو: انسان
Tiếng Việt: Loài người
West-Vlams: Mens
ייִדיש: מענטש
中文: 人