Heteropogon contortus

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Heteropogon contortus
Heteropogon contortus

Taxonavigation[edit]

Taxonavigation: Poales 
Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Monocots
Cladus: Commelinids
Ordo: Poales

Familia: Poaceae
Subfamilia: Panicoideae
Tribus: Andropogoneae
Subtribus: Anthistiriinae
Genus: Heteropogon
Species: Heteropogon contortus

Name[edit]

Heteropogon contortus (L.) P.Beauv. ex Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis 2: 836 (1817)

Synonyms[edit]

  • Basionym
    • Andropogon contortus L., Sp. Pl.: 1045 (1753).
  • Homotypic
    • Heteropogon hirtus Pers., Syn. Pl. 2: 533 (1807), nom. superfl.
    • Heteropogon contortus var. hirtus Hack. in C.F.P.von Martius & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Bras. 2(3): 267 (1883), nom. inval.
    • Sorghum contortum (L.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 791 (1891).
    • Holcus contortus (L.) Stuck., Anales Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires 11: 48 (1904).
  • Heterotypic
    • Andropogon allionii DC. in J.B.A.M.de Lamarck & A.P.de Candolle, Fl. Franç., ed. 3, 3: 97 (1805).
    • Heteropogon glaber Pers., Syn. Pl. 2: 533 (1807), nom. superfl.
    • Heteropogon hirsutus P.Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr.: 134 (1812), orth. var.
    • Heteropogon allionii (DC.) Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis 2: 835 (1817).
    • Andropogon polystachyos Roxb., Fl. Ind. 1: 265 (1820).
    • Heteropogon polystachyos (Roxb.) Schult., Mant. 2: 460 (1824).
    • Andropogon glaber Raspail, Ann. Sci. Nat. (Paris) 5: 307 (1825), nom. illeg.
    • Heteropogon firmus J.Presl in C.B.Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1: 334 (1830).
    • Andropogon firmus (J.Presl) Kunth, Enum. Pl. 1: 486 (1833).
    • Andropogon messanensis Biv., Nuove Piante: 5 (1838).
    • Heteropogon roxburghii Arn. ex Nees, Gramineae: 51 (1841).
    • Heteropogon messanensis (Biv.) Guss., Fl. Sicul. Syn. 1: 164 (1843).
    • Heteropogon hohenackeri Hochst. ex Miq., Nieuwe Verh. Eerste Kl. Kon. Ned. Inst. Wetensch. Amsterdam, ser. 3, 4: 36 (1851), nom. nud.
    • Andropogon besukiensis Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 367 (1854).
    • Andropogon hispidissimus Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 367 (1854).
    • Andropogon hohenackeri Hochst. ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 368 (1854).
    • Heteropogon hispidissimus Hochst. ex Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 367 (1854), pro syn.
    • Heteropogon besukiensis (Steud.) Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 3: 494 (1857).
    • Andropogon austrocaledonicus Vieill., Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., sér. 4, 16: 31 (1862), nom. nud.
    • Andropogon secundus Griseb., Fl. Brit. W. I.: 558 (1864), nom. illeg.
    • Andropogon bellardii Bubani, Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital. 5: 317 (1873), nom. superfl.
    • Heteropogon contortus var. glaber Hack. in C.F.P.von Martius & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Bras. 2(3): 268 (1883).
    • Andropogon contortus var. glaber (Hack.) Hack. in A.L.P.P.de Candolle & A.C.P.de Candolle, Monogr. Phan. 6: 587 (1889).
    • Andropogon contortus subvar. hispidissimus Hack. in A.L.P.P.de Candolle & A.C.P.de Candolle, Monogr. Phan. 6: 587 (1889).
    • Andropogon contortus subvar. roxburghii (Arn. ex Nees) Hack. in A.L.P.P.de Candolle & A.C.P.de Candolle, Monogr. Phan. 6: 586 (1889).
    • Andropogon contortus subvar. secundus Hack. in A.L.P.P.de Candolle & A.C.P.de Candolle, Monogr. Phan. 6: 587 (1889).
    • Heteropogon hirtus var. glaber (Hack.) Rendle in W.P.Hiern, Cat. Afr. Pl. 2: 153 (1899).
    • Andropogon contortus var. macroglumis Pilg., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 30: 137 (1901).
    • Heteropogon contortus subvar. secundus (Hack.) Domin, Biblioth. Bot. 20: 276 (1915).
    • Heteropogon contortus var. hispidissimus (Steud.) Honda, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 40: 105 (1926).
    • Heteropogon contortus var. allionii (DC.) Cuénod, Fl. Tunis.: 59 (1954).
    • Heteropogon contortus var. polystachyos (Roxb.) Deshp., Bull. Bot. Surv. India 30: 121 (1990).
    • Heteropogon fertilis B.S.Sun & S.Wang, J. Yunnan Univ. (Nat. Sci. Ed.) 21: 96 (1999).
    • Heteropogon contortus var. hispidissimus (Hack.) M.R.Almeida, Fl. Maharashtra 6A: 155 (2014), nom. illeg.

Distribution[edit]

Native distribution areas:
  • Continental:Tropics & Subtropics to S. Central Europe
      • Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Assam, Baleares, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil North, Burkina, Burundi, California, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Comoros, Cuba, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, France, Free State, Ghana, Guatemala, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, India, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Marianas, Marquesas, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Mexico, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Oman, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Rodrigues, Rwanda, Réunion, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sicilia, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Socotra, Somalia, South China Sea, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Swaziland, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Tonga, Tunisia, Uganda, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Windward Is., Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe
    • Introduced into:
      • Ascension, Cook Is., Venezuela, Wallis-Futuna Is.

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition

References[edit]

Primary references[edit]

Additional references[edit]

  • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Links[edit]

Vernacular names[edit]

Afrikaans: Pylgrass
English: tanglehead
suomi: Kierrevihnelatva
नेपाली: अर्थुङ्गे (वनस्पति)
پنجابی: سریالہ
Kiswahili: Kichoma-mguu
ไทย: หญ้าหนวดฤๅษี
中文: 扭黄茅
Wikimedia Commons For more multimedia, look at Heteropogon contortus on Wikimedia Commons.