Gerald Alfred Mulligan

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Gerald Alfred Mulligan (born Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, February 13, 1928), Canadian botanist

  • Research Branch, Agriculture Canada (retired 1987, now emeritus Research Associate). Assistant Director, Biosytematics Research Institute 1973 to 1978. Director, Biosystematics Research Institute/Centre- 1978 to 1987.
  • Author abbreviation: G.A.Mulligan

Authored taxa[edit]

(List may be incomplete)

Anacardiaceae[edit]

Apiaceae[edit]

Brassicaceae[edit]

Lamiaceae[edit]

Eponyms[edit]

Publications[edit]

(List may be incomplete)


1950s[edit]

  • Mulligan, G.A. 1952. Survey of common barberry (Berberis vulgaris L.) and European buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica L.) in eastern Ontario. Canada Department of Agriculture Bull. 23 pp.
  • Mulligan, G.A. 1952. Barberry and buckthorn surveys in southern Ontario. Proc. sixth meeting National Weed Committee, pp. 130-131.
  • Mulligan, G.A. 1953. An example of hybridization in weeds. Proc. sixth meeting National Weed Committee, pp. 64-65.
  • Mulligan, G.A. 1954. The glabrous nodding thistle, Carduus nutans var. leiophyllus in Saskatchewan. Res. Rept National Weed Committee, Western Section, p. 108.
  • Mulligan, G.A., and C. Frankton 1954. The plumeless thistles Carduus ssp. in Canada. Canadian Field-Nat. 68: 31-36.
  • Lindsay, D.R., and G.A. Mulligan 1955. Weed Survey in British Columbia. Res. Rept. National Weed Committee, Western Section, p. 125.
  • Moore, R.J., and G.A. Mulligan 1956. Natural hybridization between Carduus nutans and Carduus acanthoides in Ontario. Canadian J. Botany 34: 71-85. doi: 10.1139/b56-009
  • Mulligan, G.A. 1957. Chromosome numbers in Canadian weeds I. Canadian J. Botany 35: 779-789. doi: 10.1139/b57-064
  • Mulligan, G. 1958. Chromosome numbers in the Chrysanthemum leucanthemum complex. Rhodora 60ː 122-125.
  • Moore, R.J., and G.A. Mulligan 1958. Study of natural hybridization between Carduus acanthoides and Carduus nutans. Proceedings International Congress of Genetics 2ː 193.
  • Mulligan, G.A. 1959. Chromosome numbers in Canadian weeds II. Canadian J. Botany 37ː 81-92. doi: 10.1139/b59-008
  • Mulligan, G.A., and I.J. Bassett 1959. Achillea millefolium complex in Canada and portions of the United States. Canadian J. Botany 37ː 73-80. doi: 10.1139/b59-007

1960s[edit]

  • Mulligan, G.A.1960.Polyploidy in Canadian weeds. Canadian J. Genetics and Cytology 2ː 150-161.
  • Mulligan, G.A. 1961. Chromosome numbers of Canadian weeds III. Canadian J. Botany 39ː 1057-1066. doi: 10.1139/b61-092
  • Mulligan, G.A. 1961. The genus Lepidium in Canada. Madroño 16ː 77-90.
  • Mulligan, G.A., and R.J. Moore 1961. Natural selection among hybrids between Carduus acanthoides and Carduus nutans in Ontario. Canadian J. Botany 39ː 269-279. doi: 10.1139/b61-022
  • Mulligan G.A., and C. Frankton 1962. Taxonomy of the genus Cardaria with particular reference to the species introduced into North America. Canadian J. Botany 40ː 1411-1425.
  • Bassett, I.J., G.A. Mulligan, and C. Frankton 1962. Poverty weed, Iva axillaris in Canada and the United States. Canadian J. Botany 40ː 1243-1249.
  • Mulligan, G.A. 1964. Chromosome numbers of the family Cruciferae I. Canadian J. Botany 42ː 1509-1519.
  • Moore, R.J., and G.A. Mulligan 1964. Further studies on natural selection among hybrids of Carduus acanthoides and Carduus nutans. Canadian J. Botany 42ː 1605-1613.
  • Mulligan, G.A., and J.A. Calder 1964. The genus Subularia (Cruciferae). Rhodora 66ː 127-135.
  • Mulligan, G.A. 1965. Chromosome numbers of the family Cruciferae II. Canadian J. Botany 43ː 657-668.
  • Mulligan, G.A. 1965. In IOPB chromosome number reports V. Taxon 14ː 191-196.
  • Mulligan, G.A. 1965. Recent colonization by herbaceous plants, pp. 127-146 in Baker, H.G., and G.I Stebbins The Genetics of Colonizing Species. Academic Press Inc., New York, 588 pp.
  • Mulligan, G.A. 1965. Chromosome numbers of the family Cruciferae III. Canadian J. Botany 44ː 309-319.
  • Mulligan, G. A. 1966. Two new species of Physaria (Cruciferae) in Colorado. Canadian J. Botany 44(12): 1661-1665. doi: 10.1139/b66-178 Reference page. 
  • Mulligan, G.A. 1966. In IOPB chromosome number reports VI. Taxon 15, page 118.
  • Mulligan, G.A., and A.E. Porsild 1966. Rorippa calycina in the Northwest Territories. Canadian J. Botany 44ː 1105-1106.
  • Mulligan G.A. 1967. Diploid and autotetraploid Physaria vitulifera (Cruciferae). Canadian J. Botany 45ː 183-188.
  • Mulligan, G.A. 1967. Cytotaxonomy of Physaria acutifolia, P. chambersii, and P. newberryi (Cruciferae). Canadian J. Botany 45ː 1887-1898. doi: 10.1139/b67-204
  • Mulligan, G.A. 1967. Documented chromosome numbers of plants. Madroño 19; 134-136.
  • Mulligan, G.A. 1967. Lawn weeds. News from Canada Department of Agriculture No. 1218ː 3–4.
  • Mulligan, G.A. 1967. Poison Ivy. News from Canada Department of Agriculture No. 1222ː 8-10.
  • Mulligan, G.A. 1967. In IOPB chromosome number reports XI. Taxon 16, page 222.
  • Mulligan, G.A. 1967. In IOPB chromosome number reports XVI. Taxon 16ː pp. 564–568.
  • Mulligan, G.A., and C. Frankton 1967. Present status of tall wormseed mustard, Erysimum hieraciifolium in Canada. Canadian J. Botany 45ː 755-756.
  • Porsild, A.E., C.R. Harrington. and G.A. Mulligan 1967. Lupinus arcticus grown from seed of Pleistocene age. Science 158ː 113-114.
  • Mulligan, G.A. 1968. Transfers from Physaria to Lesquerella (Cruciferae). Canadian J. Botany 46(5)ː 527–530. doi: 10.1139/b68-079 Reference page. 
  • Mulligan, G.A. 1968. Physaria didymocarpa, P. brassicoides, and P. floribunda (Cruciferae) and their close relatives. Canadian J. Botany 46: 735-740.
  • Mulligan, G.A. 1968. Diploid and tetraploid chromosome races of Chrysanthemum leucanthemum s.l. Le Naturaliste Canadien 95: 793-795.
  • Mulligan, G.A., and W.J. Cody 1968. Draba norvegica disjunct to the Mackenzie District, Northwest Territories, Canada. Canadian J. Botany 46: 1334-1335.
  • Mulligan, G.A., and W.J. Cody 1968. In IOPB chromosome number reports XVII. Taxon 17, page 286.
  • Mulligan, G.A., and A.E. Porsild 1968. A natural first generation hybrid between Rorippa barbareaefolia and Rorippa islandica. Canadian J. Botany 46: 1079-1081.
  • Calder, J.A., R.L. Taylor, and G.A. Mulligan 1968. Flora of the Queen Charlotte Islands. News from Canada Department Agriculture No. 1266: 6-7.
  • Taylor, R.L., and G.A. Mulligan 1968. Flora of the Queen Charlotte Islands, part 2: cytological aspects of the vascular flora, Canada Department Agriculture Research Monog. No. 4, part 2. Queen's Printer, Ottawa. 148 pp.
  • Mulligan, G.A. 1969. In IOPB chromosome number reports XX. Taxon 18, page 220.
  • Mulligan, G.A., and W.J. Cody 1969. The highest chromosome number known to occur in a North American plant. Canadian Field-Nat. 83: 277-278.
  • Mulligan, G.A., and A.E. Porsild, 1969. A new species of Lesquerella (Cruciferae) in northwestern Canada. Canadian J. Botany 47: 215-216. doi: 10.1139/b69-025 Reference page. 
  • Mulligan, G.A., and A.E. Porsild 1969. Chromosome numbers of some plants from the unglaciated central Yukon Plateau, Canada. Canadian J. Botany 47: 655-662.

1970s[edit]

  • Mulligan, G.A. 1970. Cytotaxonomic studies of Draba glabella and its close relatives in Canada and Alaska. Canadian J. Botany 48(8): 1431-1437. doi: 10.1139/b70-215 Reference page. 
  • Mulligan, G.A. 1970. A new species of Draba in the Kananaskis Range of southwestern Alberta. Canadian J. Botany 48(10): 1897-1898. doi: 10.1139/b70-277 Reference page. 
  • Mulligan, G.A. 1970. Wild garlic, Allium vineale, a new weed in Canada. Greenhouse Garden and Grass 9(2):12.
  • Frankton, C., and G.A. Mulligan 1970. Weeds of Canada. Canada Department of Agriculture Publ. 948. 217 pp.
  • Mulligan, G.A., and J.N. Findlay 1970. Sexual reproduction and agamospermy in the genus Draba. Canadian J. Botany 48: 269-270. doi: 10.1139/b70-040
  • Mulligan, G.A., and J.N. Findlay 1970. Reproductive systems and colonization in Canadian weeds. Canadian J. Botany 48: 859-860. doi: 10.1139/b70-119
  • Mulligan, G.A., and A.E. Porsild 1970. In IOPB chromosome number reports XXV. Taxon 19: pp. 111-112.
  • Mulligan, G.A., and A.E. Porsild 1970. In IOPB chromosome number reports XXVIII. Taxon 19: p. 609.
  • Mulligan, G.A. 1971. Cytotaxonomic studies of the closely related Draba cana, D. cinerea, and D. groenlandica in Canada and Alaska. Canadian J. Botany 49: 89-93. doi: 10.1139/b71-017
  • Mulligan, G.A. 1971. Cytotaxonomic studies of Draba species of Canada and Alaska: D. ventosa, D. ruaxes, and D. paysonii. Canadian J. Botany 49: 1455-1460. doi: 10.1139/b71-204
  • Mulligan, G.A., and Cody, W.J. 1971. In IOPB chromosome number reports XXXIII. Taxon 20: pp. 613-614.
  • Mulligan, G.A. 1972. Cytotaxonomic studies of Draba species in Canada and Alaska: D. oligosperma and D. incerta. Canadian Journal of Botany 50(8): 1763–1766. doi: 10.1139/b72-218 Reference page. 
  • Mulligan, G.A. 1972. Autogamy, allogamy, and pollination in some Canadian weeds. Canadian J. Botany 50: 1767-1771. doi: 10.1139/b72-219
  • Cavers, P.B., and Mulligan, G.A. 1972. A new series: The biology of Canadian weeds. Canadian J. Plant Science 52: 651-654. doi: 10.4141/cjps72-099
  • Mulligan, G.A., and Cody, W.J. 1972. In IOPB chromosome number reports XXXV. Taxon 21: p. 163.
  • Mulligan, G.A., L. Cinq-Mars, and W.J. Cody 1972. Natural interspecific hybridization between a sexual and an apogamous species of the beech fern genus Phegopteris Fee. Canadian J. Botany 50: 1295-1300. doi: 10.1139/b72-158
  • Mulligan, G.A., and Frankton, C. 1972. Chromosome races in Rumex arcticus (Polygonaceae). Canadian J. Botany 50: 378-380. doi: 10.1139/b72-053
  • Mulligan, G.A., Cody, W.J. and Grainger, N. 1972. In IOPB chromosome number reports XXXVII. Taxon 21: 498-499 pp.
  • Mulligan, G.A., 1973. Pp. 13-18 in The genus Lesquerella (Cruciferae) in North America. R.C.Rollins and E.A. Shaw, Harvard University Press 288 pp.
  • Mulligan, G.A., and Cody, W.J. 1973. A clarification of the chromosome number situation in Sanquisorba canadensis. Canadian J. Botany 51: 2075-2077. doi: 10.1139/b73-269
  • Mulligan, G.A., and Cody, W.J. 1973. In IOPB chromosome number reports XL. Taxon 22: 290-191 pp.
  • Mulligan. G.A., and Kevan, P.G. 1973. Color, brightness, and other floral characteristics attracting insects to the blossoms of some Canadian weeds. Canadian J. Botany 51: 1939-1952. doi: 10.1139/b73-248
  • Kevan, P.G., Grainger, N.D., Mulligan, G.A. and Robertson, A.R. 1973. A gray-scale for measuring reflectance and color in the insect and human visual spectra. Ecology 54: 924-926.
  • Mulligan, G.A. 1974. Confusion in the names of three Draba species of the arctic: D. adamsii, D. oblongata, and D. corymbosa. Canadian J. Botany 52: 791-793. doi: 10.1139/b74-102
  • Mulligan, G.A. 1974. Cytotaxonomic studies of Draba nivalis and its close allies in Canada and Alaska. Canadian J Botany 52: 1793-1801. doi: 10.1139/b74-232 Reference page. 
  • Mulligan, G.A., and Cody, W.J. 1974. In IOPB chromosome number reports XLIII. Taxon 23: p. 194.
  • Mulligan, G.A., and Findlay, J.N. 1974. The biology of Canadian weeds 3. Cardaria draba, C. chalepensis, and C. pubescens. Canadian J. Plant Science 54: 149-160. doi: 10.4141/cjps74-024
  • Mulligan G., 1975. Draba crassifolia, D. albertina, D. nemorosa, and D. stenoloba in Canada and Alaska. Canadian J. Botany 53: 745-751. doi: 10.1139/b75-089
  • Mulligan, G.A., and Bailey, L.G. 1975. The biology of Canadian weeds 8. Sinapis arvensis L. Canadian J. Botany 55: 171-183. doi: 10.4141/cjps75-026
  • Mulligan, G.A. 1976. Common weeds of Canada/Les mauvais herbes communes du Canada. McClelland and Stewart Ltd., Toronto. 140 pp.
  • Mulligan, G.A., and Bailey, L.G. 1976. Seed coats of some Brassica and Sinapis weedy and cultivated in Canada. Economic Botany 30: 143-148.
  • Mulligan, G.A., and Junkins, B.E. 1976. The biology of Canadian weeds 17. Cyperus esculentus L. Canadian J. Plant Science 56: 339-350. doi: 10.4141/cjps76-052
  • Mulligan, G.A. 1977. Seed coats under the scanning electron microscope. Seed Technology 2: 24-29.
  • Mulligan, G.A., and Junkins, B.E. 1977. The biology of Canadian weeds 23. Rhus radicans L. Canadian J. Plant Science 57: 515-523. doi: 10.4141/cjps77-075
  • Mulligan, G.A. 1978. Barbarea stricta Andrz., a new introduction to Quebec. Le Naturaliste Canadien 105: 297-298.
  • Mulligan, G.A., and Junkins, B.E. 1978. The taxonomic rank of Rydberg's poison ivy. Le Naturaliste Canadien 105: 291-293.
  • Mulligan, G.A., and Lindsay, D.R. 1978. Euphorbia subgenus Chamaesyce in Canada. Le Naturaliste Canadien 105: 37-40.
  • Mulligan, G.A. 1979. Four new species of Draba in northwestern North America. Canadian J. Botany 57: 1873-1875. doi: 10.1139/b79-236 Reference page. 
  • Mulligan, G.A. 1979, (Editor). The biology of Canadian weeds, contributions 1-32. Agriculture Canada Publ. 1693, 380 pp.
  • Mulligan, G.A., and Cody, W.J. 1979. Chromosome numbers in Phegopteris. Canadian J. Botany 57: 1815-1819. doi: 10.1139/b79-225
  • Miller, J.E, Mulligan, G.A., et al. 1979. Common weed seedlings of the United States and Canada. University Georgia College Agriculture, Athens, 31 pp.

1980s[edit]

  • Mulligan, G.A. 1980. Poison ivy, western poison oak, and poison sumac. Agriculture Canada Publ. 1699. 13pp.

Mulligan, G.A. 1980. The genus Cicuta in North America. Canadian J. Botany 58: 1755-1767.

  • Mulligan, G.A., and Munro, D.B. 1980. The biology of Canadian weeds 48. Cicuta maculata L., C. douglasii (DC.) Coult. & Rose, and C. virosa L. Canadian J. Plant Science 61(1): 93-105. doi: 10.4141/cjps81-012
  • Alex, J.F., R. Cayouette, and Mulligan, G.A. 1980. Common and botanical names of weeds in Canada. Agriculture Canada Publ. 1765. 415 pp.
  • Mulligan, G.A., and Munro, D.B.. 1981. The biology of Canadian weeds 51. Prunus virginiana L., and P. serotina Ehrh. Canadian J. Plant Science 61(4): 977-992. doi: 10.4141/cjps81-144
  • Cody, W.J., and Mulligan, G.A. 1982. Chromosome numbers of some Canadian ferns and fern allies. Le Naturaliste Canadien 109: 273-275.
  • Mulligan, G.A., and Munro, D.B. 1983. Vascular plants poisonous to livestock in Canada 1. A preliminary inventory. Agriculture Canada Technical Bulletin 1983-23E. 33pp.
  • Mulligan, G.A., Munro, D.B., and J. McNeil 1983. The status of Stachys palustris (Labiatae) in North America. Canadian J. Botany 61: 679-682. doi: 10.1139/b83-077
  • Mulligan, G.A. 1984. Chromosome numbers of some plants native and naturalized in Canada. Le Naturaliste Canadien 111: 447-449.
  • Mulligan, G.A. (Editor) 1984. The biology of Canadian weeds, contributions 33-61. Agriculture Canada Publ. 1765. 415 pp.
  • Mulligan, G.A., and Munro, D.B. 1984. Chromosome numbers and sexual compatibility in North American Rorippa sylvestris (Cruciferae). Canadian J. Botany 62: 575-580. doi: 10.1139/b84-086
  • Mulligan, G.A., and Munro, D.B.. 1984. Wild and cultivated plants poisonous to humans in Canada. Agriculture Canada Technical Bulletin 1984E. 22 pp.
  • Mulligan, G.A. (Editor) 1986. Systematics in Agriculture Canada at Ottawa from 1886-1966. Historical Series No. 28E. 81 pp.

Mulligan, G.A. (Editor) 1986. La Recherche en systématique à Agriculture Canada Ottawa 1886-1966. Série historique No. 28F. 83 pp.

  • Mulligan, G.A. 1987. Common weeds of Canada. NC Press Ltd. Toronto. 143 pp.
  • Mulligan, G.A. 1987. Les plantes nuisibles communes du Canada. Marcel Broquet Inc., Montréal. 142 pp.
  • Mulligan, G.A., and Munro, D.B. 1987. The biology of Canadian weeds 77. Veratrum viride Ait. Canadian J. Plant Science 67(3): 777-786. doi: 10.4141/cjps87-105
  • Frankton, C., and Mulligan, G.A. 1987. Weeds of Canada (revised edition). NC Press, Toronto. 217 pp.
  • Frankton, C., and Mulligan, G.A. 1988. Les plantes nuisibles du Canada (revisée). Marcel Broquet Inc., Montréal. 218 pp.
  • Mulligan, G.A. and Munro, D.B. 1989. Taxonomy of species of North American Stachys (Labiatae) found north of Mexico. Le Naturaliste Canadien 116(1): 35-51. Abstract Reference page. 

1990s[edit]

  • Mulligan, G.A. 1990. Poison ivy, western poison oak, and poison sumac (revised edition). Agriculture Canada Publ. 1699E, 13 pp.
  • Mulligan, G.A. 1990. L'herbe à la puce, le sumac à vernis et les rhus diversiloba (revisée). Agriculture Canada Publ. 1699F. 13 pp.
  • Mulligan, G.A., and D.B. Munro 1990. Poisonous plants of Canada. Agriculture Canada Publ. 1842E. 96 pp.
  • Mulligan, G.A., and D.B. Munro 1990. Plantes toxiques du Canada. Agriculture Canada Publ. 1842F. 98 pp.
  • Mulligan, Julie, and G.A. Mulligan 1992. Purple loosestrife, friend or foe? Ontario Landscape News, June 4.
  • Mal, T.K., J. Lovette-Doust, and G.A. Mulligan 1992. The biology of Canadian weeds 100. Lythrum salicaria. Canadian J. Plant Science 72(4): 1305-1330. doi: 10.4141/cjps92-164
  • Mulligan, G.A. 1995. Synopsis of the genus Arabis (Brassicaceae) in Canada, Alaska, and Greenland. Rhodora 97(890): 109-163. BHL Reference page. 

Mulligan, G.A., and W.J. Cody 1995. New information on the problem of the Asiatic cress, Rorippa crystallina Rollins (Brassicaceae). Canadian Field-Nat. 109: 111-112.

  • Mulligan, G.A. 1999. A tribute to Raymond John Moore, 1918-1998. Canadian Field-Nat. 113: 342-344.

2000s[edit]

2010s[edit]

References[edit]

  • The Real Weed Man: Portrait of Canadian Botanist Gerald A. Mulligan, Julie Mulligan, 228 pp.
  • Al-Shehbaz, I. A. 2009. Two new North American species of Draba (Brassicaceae): D. heilii from New Mexico and D. mulliganii from Alaska. Harvard Pap. Bot. 14: 83–86. doi: 10.3100/025.014.0112 Reference page. 


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