Fungi (classifications)

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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Regnum: Fungi

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Classifications[edit]

l'Obel (1581)[edit]

l’Obel, M. (1581). Kruydtboeck. Antwerp: Christoffel Plantyn, [1]. See Ainsworth (1976), p. 243, [2].

  • Agaricum [p. 267]
  • Fungi [p. 305]
  • Tubera [p. 311]
  • Boleti [p. 312]

Clusius (1601)[edit]

Rariorum plantarum historia, pp. cclxiii-ccxcv, [3].

  • Fungi esculenti
  • Fungi noxii et perniciosi

Bauhin (1623)[edit]

Pinax theatri botanici, 1623, [4].

  • Liber decimus [p. 353]
    • Sectio quinta. Fungi et Tubera [p. 369]
      • Fungi
      • Agaricum fungus
      • Tubera

Sterbeeck (1675)[edit]

Theatrum fungorum, [5].

  • goede Campernoelien [p. 1]
  • quaede Fungi [p. 167]
  • Aerd-buylen [p. 305]

Ray (1686–1704)[edit]

Historia Plantarum, 3 vols., [6].

Plantarum

  • Herbarum [p. 59-1348]
    • Fungi [p. 84]
      • Fungis terrestribus lamellatis [p. 85]
      • Fungis terrestribus lamellis carentibus [p. 100]
      • Fungis arborei [p. 106]
      • Fungis subterraneis, seu tuberibus terrae [p. 110]
  • Arborum & fruticum [p. 1349-1839]

Magnol (1689)[edit]

Prodromus historiae generalis plantarum in quo familiae plantarum per tabulas disponuntur, [7].

Sectio tertia. Plantarum quariun character á follis desumitur

  • Plantae fungosae
    • Supra terram
    • Alii arboribus innascuntur
      • Pileati
      • Cancellati
      • Digitati
    • Alii sub terrá latitant
    • Alii in mari oriuntur
  • Plantae muscosae
  • Plantae capillares
  • De fucis, et aliis maritimis
  • De corallis

Tournefort (1694)[edit]

Élémens de botanique, vol. 1, vol. 2 vol. 3. See also Linnaeus (1738), [8] and Le Maout (1852), [9].

Plantes [vol. 1, pp. xxi-xxii]

  • Classe XVII. Sans fleurs ni fruits [pp. 438-448]
    • Section I
      • Muscus, Fungus, Boletus, Agaricus, Lycoperdon, Coralloides, Tubera
    • Section II [see Algae]

Tournefort (1700)[edit]

Institutiones rei herbariæ, [10].

Classis XVII. De herbis et suffruticibus, quorum flores & fructus vulgò desiderantur. [pp. 550-577]

  • Section I. De herbis terrestribus, quarum flores & fructus, vulgò desiderantur.
    • Muscus, Fungus, Fungoides, Boletus, Agaricus, Lycoperdon, Coralloides, Tubera
  • Section II

Dillenius (1718[-1719])[edit]

Catalogus plantarum sponte circa Gissam nascentium, [11]. See Carl Linnaeus, Manuscripta Medica Tom. I (1727 - 1730), pp. 45-46, [12].

Classis fungorum [p. 71]

  • Amanita, Boletus, Erinaceus, Morchella, Phallus, Fungoides, Agaricus, Peziza, Bovista, Tuberum

Micheli (1729)[edit]

Nova plantarum genera iuxta Tournefortii methodum disposita, [13].

  • Decimae sextae Classi addenda, quae sequuntur. [p. 72]
    • Distributio I.
      • Lichen, Lichen-agaricus, Lichenoides
    • Distributio II.
      • Riccia, Salvinia
  • Decimae septima Classi addenda. [p. 108-222]
    • Distributio I.
      • Muscus
    • Distributio II.
      • Agaricum, Ceratospermum, Linckia
    • Distributio III.
      • Suillus, Polyporus, Erinaceus, Fungus, Fungoidaster, Phallus, Phallo-boletus, Boletus
    • Distributio IV.
      • Fungoides, Clavaria, Coralloides, Byssus, Botrytis, Aspergillus, Puccinia
    • Distributio V.
      • Clathrus, Clathroides, Clathroidastrum, Mucor, Lycogala, Mucilago, Lycoperdon, Lycoperdoides, Lycoperdastrum, Geaster, Carpobolus, Tuber, Cyathoides

Linnaeus (1735)[edit]

Systema Naturae, 1st ed., [14], [15].

Regnum vegetabile

  • Nuptiae plantarum
    • Publicae
    • Clandestinae
      • XXIV. Cryptogamia
        • Arbores
        • Filices
        • Musci
        • Algae
        • Fungi
          • Agaricus, Boletus, Hydna, Merullius, Elvela, Peziza, Coniplea, Byssus, Nostoc
        • Lithophyta

Linnaeus (1753)[edit]

Species Plantarum, 1st ed., 2 vols., [16].

  • Classis XXIV. Cryptogamia
    • Filices
    • Musci
    • Algae
    • Fungi
      • Agaricus, Boletus, Hydnum, Phallus, Clathrus, Elvela, Peziza, Clavaria, Lycoperdon, Mucor

Gleditsch (1753)[edit]

Methodus fungorum, [17].

  • Byssus
  • Clavaria
  • Elvela
  • Phallus
  • Boletus
  • Agaricus
  • Peziza
  • Clathrus
  • Stemonitis
  • Lycoperdon
  • Mucor

Necker (1783)[edit]

Traité sur la mycitologie, [18].

Regnum mesymale [p. 127]

  • Agaricus, Boletus, Helvela, Hydnum, Clathrus, Phallus, Clavaria, Peziza, Lycoperdon, Mucor

Batsch (1783-89)[edit]

Elenchus Fungorum, 3 vols., [19].

Synopsys generum [p. 33-37]

  • Agaricus
  • Boletus
  • Hydnum
  • Peziza
  • Phallus
  • Clavaria
  • Clathrus
  • Lycoperdon
  • Mucor

Persoon (1801)[edit]

Synopsis Methodica Fungorum, 2 parts, [20]. See Sanctioned name .

Conspectus systematicus [pp. ix-xx]

  • Angiocarpi
    • Sclerocarpi
    • Sarcocarpi
    • Dermatocarpi
  • Gymnocarpi
    • Lytothecii
    • Hymenothecii
    • Naematothecii

Rafinesque (1815)[edit]

Analyse de la nature ou Tableau de l'univers et des corps organisés, [21]. See Kluge (2004-2014), [22].

  • Empire minéral ou inorganique [p. 22]
  • Empire vital [p. 34] ou organique [p. 21] ou somobial [p. 37]
    • Règne animal ou Zoonia [p. 39]
    • Règne végétal ou Phytonia [p. 41]
      • 1. Subregnum Dicotylia
      • 2. Subregnum Monocotylia
      • 3. Subregnum Acotylia
        • 9. Classis Algosia
        • 10. Classis Mycosia [p. 209]
            • 1. Subclassis Exosporia
              • 1. Ordo Adelistia
              • 2. Ordo Phaneristia
            • 2. Subclassis Endosporia
              • 3. Ordo Sarcosporia
              • 4. Ordo Coniosporia

Nees von Esenbeck (1816)[edit]

Nees von Esenbeck, C. G. Das system der pilze und schwämme. Ein versuch. [23].

  • Pilze. Vegetabilia mycetoidea [p. 1]
    • Protomyci
    • Nematomyci
    • Gasteromyci
  • Schwämme. Vegetabilia fungosa [p. 38]
    • Prototypus
    • Metamorphosis
      • Fungi aërei et hypogaei
      • Fungi clavati et pileati
      • Fungi utrini
      • Myelomyci

Fries (1821-1832)[edit]

Systema Mycologicum (1821–32), 3 vols, [24]. Elenchus fungorum, sistens commentarium in Systema mycologicum, (1828), 2 vols, [25], [26]. See Sanctioned name.

Fungi [p. xxxiv]

  • Classis Coniomycetes
  • Classis Hyphomycetes
  • Classis Gastromycetes
  • Classis Hymenomycetes

Bartling (1830)[edit]

Ordines naturales plantarum, [27].

Vegetabilia (Plantae)

  • Cellularia
    • Homonemea
      • Classis Fungi
        • Ordo Coniomycetes
        • Ordo Gasteromycetes
        • Ordo Pyrenomycetes
        • Ordo Hymenomycetes
      • Classis Lichenes
      • Classis Algae
    • Heteronemea
      • Classis Musci
  • Vascularia

Link (1833)[edit]

Link, H. F. (1829-1833). Handbuch zur Erkennung der nutzbarsten und am häufigsten vorkommenden Gewächse, 3 vols., [28].

Pflanzen

  • Classis I. Endogeneae
  • Classis II. Exogeneae
  • Classis. III. Filices
  • Classis. IV. Musci
  • Classis. V. Cryptophyta
    • Ordo I. Lichenosae
    • Ordo II. Algae
    • Ordo III. Fungi [vol. 3, 1833, p. 271]
      • Subordo I. Mycetes
      • Subordo II. Octosporidei
      • Subordo III. Sporadospori
      • Subordo IV. Sphaeriaceae
      • Subordo V. Gastromyci
      • Subordo VI. Myxomycetes
      • Subordo VII. Epispori
      • Subordo VIII. Mucedines

Endlicher (1836)[edit]

Endlicher, S.L. (1836). Genera plantarum secundum ordines naturales disposita. pp. [i]-lx, [1-]-160. Vienna, [29]. See Lindley (1846), [30], Rendle (1904), [31].

Plantae

  • Regio I. Thallophyta
    • Sectio 1. Protophyta
      • Classis i. Algae
      • Classis ii. Lichenes
    • Sectio 2. Hysterophyta
      • Classis iii. Fungi
        • Gymnomycetes
        • Hyphomycetes
        • Gasteromycetes
        • Pyrenomycetes
        • Hymenomycetes
  • Regio II. Cormophyta

Lindley (1846)[edit]

The Vegetable Kingdom, [32].

Vegetable Kingdom

  • Asexual, or flowerless plants
    • Class Thalogens
      • Alliance Algales
      • Alliance Fungales [p. 29]
        • Cohors Sporiferi
          • Ordo Hymenomycetes, or Agaricaceae
          • Ordo Gasteromycetes, or Lycoperdaceae
          • Ordo Coniomycetes, or Uredinaceae
          • Ordo Hyphomycetes, or Botrytaceae
        • Cohors Sporidiiferi
          • Ordo Ascomycetes, or Helvellaceae
          • Ordo Physomycetes, or Mucoraceae
      • Alliance Lichenales [p. 45]
    • Class Acrogens
  • Sexual, or flowering plants

Robin (1853)[edit]

Histoire naturelle des végétaux parasites qui croissent sur l'homme et sur les animaux vivants, [33].

  • Fungi [p. 253]
    • Division Arthosporei
    • Division Trichosporei
    • Division Cystosporei
    • Division Clinosporei
    • Division Thecasporei
  • Algae

de Bary (1866)[edit]

de Bary, A. (1866). Morphologie und Biologie der Pilze, Flechten und Myxomyceten. Leipzig, [34].

  • Pilze [p. vi]
    • Phycomycetes
    • Hypodermii
    • Basidiomycetes
    • Ascomycetes

Haeckel (1866, I)[edit]

Generelle morphologie der organismen, Bd. 1, pp. 206-220.

Haeckel (1866, II)[edit]

Generelle morphologie der organismen, Bd. 2. See also plate 1, "Monophyletischer Stammbaum der Organismen", [35].

Haeckel (1868a)[edit]

Haeckel, E. 1868. Natürliche Schöpfungsgeschichte. 1st ed. Reimer, Berlin, [36]. See Dayrat (2003), [37].


  • "Polyphyletisher Stammbaum der Organismen" [p. 347]
    • Plantae
    • “Protista” [polyphyletic]
      • Labyrinthuleae
      • Myxomycetes
      • Diatomeae
      • Monera Neutra
      • Protoplasta
      • Rhizopoda
      • Flagellata
    • Animalia


  • "Polyphyletisher Stammbaum des Pflanzenreichs" [p. 382]
    • Fucoideae
    • Florideae
    • Archephyceae
    • Archephyta [paraphyletic] + Chlorophyceae [polyphyletic] + Cormophyta
    • Lichenes
    • Fungi


  • "Polyphyletisher Stammbaum des Thierreichs" [p. 392]
    • Acephalae
    • Spongiae
    • Colelminthes
    • Acineta
    • Archezoa [paraphyletic] + Infusoria
    • Ciliata
    • Platyelminthes
    • Himatega
    • Nematelminthes


  • "Einstämmiger oder Monophyletisher Stammbaum der Organismen" [plate I, [38]]
    • Pflanzenreich, Plantae
      • Florideae
      • Fucoideae
      • Chloralgae + Muscinae + Filicinae + Gymnospermae + Angiospermae
      • Lichenes
      • Fungi
    • Protistenreich, Protista
      • Diatomea
      • Labyrinthulae
      • Myxomycetes
      • Monera neutra + Rhizopoda
      • Noctilucae
      • Flagellata
      • Protoplasta
    • Thierreich, Animalia
      • Coelenterata
      • Scolecida
      • Vermes (Scolecida + Colelminthes + Himatega) +Arthropoda + Vertebrata + Mollusca

Haeckel (1868b)[edit]

Haeckel, E. 1868. Monographie der Moneren. Jenaische Zeitschrift für Medicin und Naturwissenschaft 4: 64–144, [39]. See p. 122, 129-134.

Translation: Monograph of Monera. Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science, 1869, IX: 27-42, 113-134, 219-232, 327-342.

Protista

  • Monera
    • Gymnomonera (Protamaeba, Protogenes, Myxodictium)
    • Lepomonera (Protomonas, Protomyxa, Vampyrella, Myxastrum)
  • Flagellata
  • Labyrinthulea (Labyrinthulae)
  • Diatomea
  • Phycochromacea
  • Fungi (Mycetes)
    • Phycomycetes (Saprolegnieae, Mucorinae etc.)
    • Hypodermiae (Uredineae, Ustilagineae etc.)
    • Basidiomycetes (Hymenomycetes, Gastromycetes etc.)
    • Ascomycetes (Protomycetes, Discomytes etc.)
  • Myxomycetes
  • Protoplasta
  • Noctilucae
  • Rhizopoda

Sachs (1874)[edit]

Lehrbuch der Botanik, 4th ed., [40].

Pflanzen

  • Gruppe I. Thallophyten
    • Klassen I. Protophyten
      • Chlorophyllhaltige [forms with chlorophyll]
        • Cyanophyceen
        • Palmellaceen
      • Chlorophyllfreie [forms without chlorophyll]
        • Schizomyceten
        • Saccharomyces
    • Klassen II. Zygosporeen
      • Chlorophyllhaltige [forms with chlorophyll]
        • Volvocineen
        • Conjugaten (incl. der Diatomeen)
      • Chlorophyllfreie [forms without chlorophyll]
        • Myxomyceten
        • Zygomyceten
    • Klassen III. Oosporeen
      • Chlorophyllhaltige [forms with chlorophyll]
        • Sphaeroplea
        • Vaucheria
        • Oedogonieen
        • Fucaceen
      • Chlorophyllfreie [forms without chlorophyll]
        • Saprolegnieen
        • Peronosporeen
    • Klassen IV. Carposporeen
      • Chlorophyllhaltige [forms with chlorophyll]
        • Coleochaeteen
        • Florideen
        • Characeen
      • Chlorophyllfreie [forms without chlorophyll]
        • Ascomyceten (incl. der Flechten)
        • Aecidiomyceten
        • Basidiomyceten

Haeckel (1878)[edit]

Haeckel, E., 1878. Das Protistenreich. Eine Populäre Uebersicht über das Formengebiet der Niedersten Lebewesen. Ernst Günther's Verlag, Leipzig, 104 pp, [41].

Protista [p. 86-104]

Dr. L. Rabenhorst's Kryptogamen-Flora (1880-)[edit]

From Dr. L. Rabenhorst's Kryptogamen-Flora von Deutschland, Oesterreich und der Schweiz, 2nd ed., [42].

"Cryptogamia"

Saccardo et al. (1882-1931)[edit]

Sylloge fungorum omnium hucusque cognitorum, [43].

Fungaceae [Conspectus systematicus generalis, v. 8, p. xiii-xvi]

  • Fungi superiores
    • Hymenomyceteae [vols. 5, 6]
    • Gasteromyceteae [vol. 7]
    • Hypodermeae
      • Ustilaginaceae [vol. 7]
      • Uredinaceae [vol. 7]
    • Phycomyceteae [vol. 7]
    • Pyrenomyceteae [vols. 1, 2]
    • Discomyceteae [vol. 8]
    • Tuberoideae [vol. 8] (incl. Schizomycetaceae)
    • Myxomyceteae [vol. 7]
  • Fungi inferiores
    • Sphaeropsideae [vol. 3]
      • Sphaerioidaceae
      • Nectrioidaceae
      • Leptostromataceae
      • Exipuliaceae
    • Melanconiaceae [vol. 3]
    • Hyphomyceteae [vol. 4]
      • Mucedinaceae [= Moniliaceae]
      • Dematiaceae
      • Stilbaceae
      • Tuberculariaceae

Eichler (1883)[edit]

Syllabus der Vorlesungen über Phanerogamenkunde, 3rd ed., 1883, [44].

Pflanzen

de Bary (1884)[edit]

de Bary, A. (1884). Vergleichende Morphologie und Biologie der Pilze, Mycetozoa und Bakterien. Leipzig, [45].

Translation (1887): Comparative Morphology and Biology of the Fungi, Mycetozoa and Bacteria, [46].

  • Fungi [p. 142]
    • Ascomycetenreihe
      • Peronosporeen
      • Saprolegnieen
      • Mucorinen oder Zygomyceten
      • Entomophthoreen
      • Ascomyceten
      • Uredineen
    • Chytridieen
    • Protomyces und Ustilagineen
    • Zweifelhafte Ascomyceten [Doubtful Ascomycetes]
      • Saccharomyces etc.
    • Basidiomycetes
      • Hymenomycetes
      • Gastromycetes
  • Mycetozoa
    • Myxomycetes
    • Acrasieae
    • Zweifelhafte Mycetozen [Doubtfull Mycetozoa]
  • Bacterien oder Schizomyceten
    • Endospore Bacterien
    • Arthrospore Bacterien

Engler & Prantl (1887–1915)[edit]

Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien, 1st ed., [47].

Pflanzen

  • Myxothallophyta
    • Myxomycetes [Teil 1, Abt. 1, 1897]
  • Euthallophyta
    • Fungi (Eumycetes)
      • Phycomycetes [Teil 1, Abt. 1, 1897]
      • Ascomycetes [Teil 1, Abt. 1, 1897]
      • Lichenes [Teil 1, Abt. 1*, 1907]
      • Basidiomycetes [Teil 1, Abt. 1**, 1900]
      • Fungi imperfecti [Teil 1, Abt. 1**, 1900]
    • Schizophyta
    • Flagellata
    • Peridiniales
    • Bacillariaceae
    • Euphyceae
  • Embryophyta zoidiogama (Embryophyta asiphonogama)
  • Embryophyta siphonogama

Haeckel (1889)[edit]

Haeckel, E. 1889. Natürliche Schöpfungsgeschichte, 8th ed, [48]. See p. 452, 453, 462, 508.

  • Protistenreich
    • Protophyta (Protista vegetalia)
    • Protozoa (Protista animalia)
  • Pflanzenreich
    • Thallota (Thallophyta)
      • Algae (Phycophyta)
      • Fungi (Inophyta)
        • Mycetes
        • Lichenes
    • Prothallota (Mesophyta)
    • Phanerogamae (Anthophyta)
  • Thierreich

Schröter (1889-1908)[edit]

Schröter, J. Die Pilze, in Cohn's Kryptogamen-Flora von Schlesien. Vol. 3.1 (1889), [49]. Vol. 3.2 (1908), [50], [51]

Fungi [Vol. 3.1, p. 87-91]

  • Myxomycetes
  • Schizomycetes (Cocobacteria, Eubacteria, Desmobacteria)
  • Eumycetes

Zopf (1890)[edit]

Die Pilze in morphologischer, physiologischer, biologischer und systematischer beziehung, [52].

Pilze

  • Phycomyceteen
    • Gruppe I. Chytridiaceen
    • Gruppe II. Oomyceten
    • Gruppe III. Zygomyceten (Zygosporeen)
  • Mycomyceten
    • Gruppe I. Basidiomyceten
    • Gruppe II. Uredineen oder Rostpilze
    • Gruppe III. Ustilagineen. Brandpilze
    • Gruppe IV. Ascomyceten
  • Pilze, die in dem natürlichen System nicht untergebracht werden können

Engler (1892)[edit]

Engler, A. 1892. Syllabus der Vorlesungen über specielle und medicinisch-pharmaceutische Botanik [...] [Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien, in further editions]. 1st ed., Berlin: Gebr. Borntraeger, [53].

Pflanzen

  • Myxothallophyta
    • Myxomycetes
      • Acrasieae
      • Plasmodiophorales
      • Myxogasteres
  • Euthallophyta
    • Schizophyta
    • Dinoflagellata
    • Bacillariales
    • Gamophyceae
    • Fungi
      • Phycomycetes
      • Mesomycetes
        • Hemiascii
        • Hemibasidii
      • Mycomycetes
        • Ascomycetes
        • Basidiomycetes
      • Fungi imperfecti
  • Embryophyta zoidiogama (Archegoniatae)
  • Embryophyta siphonogama (Phanerogamae)

Haeckel (1894)[edit]

Systematische phylogenie, 3 vols (vol. 1, Protisten und Pflanzen, 1894; vol. 2, Invertebrata, 1896; vol. 3, Vertebrata, 1895). [54].


[Vol. 1, p. 90-91:]

Pflanzen

  • Protophyta (Protista plasmodoma) [Vol. 1, p. 96]
  • Metaphyta (Histones plasmodomi) [Vol. 1, p. 256]
    • Thallophyta
      • Algae, [Vol. 1, p. 302]
        • Chlorophyceae
        • Charaphyceae
        • Phaeophyceae
        • Rhodophyceae
      • Mycetes [Vol. 1, p. 316]
        • Ascomycetes (Ascodiomycetes)
        • Basimycetes (Basidiomycetes)
      • Lichenes [Vol. 1, p. 325]
    • Diaphyta [Vol. 1, p. 330]
      • Bryophyta [Vol. 1, p. 336]
      • Pteridophyta
    • Anthophyta
      • Gymnospermae
      • Angiospermae

Thieren

  • Protozoa (Protista plasmophaga) [Vol. 1, p. 138]
  • Metazoa (Histones plasmophagi)

Lafar (1904)[edit]

Handbuch der technischen Mykologie, vol. 1, [55].

  • Fungi [pp. 26-27]
    • Schizomycetes
    • Eumycetes
      • Oomycetes
      • Zygomycetes
      • Ascomycetes
      • Fungi imperfecti

Vuillemin (1912)[edit]

Les Champignons: Essai de classification. [56].

Mycètes [polyphylétique; p. 263]

  • Phycomycètes
    • Saprolégniinées
    • Péronosporinées
    • Mucorinées
  • Entomophtorinées
  • Eumycètes
    • Ascomycètes
    • Basidiomycètes
    • Hétérobasidiés

Schussnig (1925)[edit]

Schussnig, B. (1925). Betrachtungen über das system der niederen Pflanzen. Verhandl. d. zool. bot. Ges. Wien., Bd. 75, p. 196-272, [57].

Protophyta

  • VIII. Stamm: Mycophyta
    • 1. Klasse: Phycomycetes
      • 1. Ordnung: Chytridiales
      • 2. Ordnung: Phytomyxinales
      • 3. Ordnung: Monoblepliaridales
      • 4. Ordnung: Zygomycetales (inkl. Endomycetineae)
      • 5. Ordnung: Oomycetales
      • 6. Ordnung: Saccharomycetales
    • 2. Klasse: Ascomycetes
      • 1. Ordnung: Plectascales
      • 2. Ordnung: Discomycetales
        • 1. Unterordnung: Pezizineae
        • 2. Unterordnung: Helvellineae
        • 3. Unterordnung: Phacidineae
        • 4. Unterordnung: Hysteriineae
      • 3. Ordnung: Tuberales
      • 4. Ordnung: Perisporiales
      • 5. Ordnung: Exoascales
      • 6. Ordnung: Pyrenomycetes
      • 7. Ordnung: Laboulbeniales
    • 3. Klasse: Basidiomycetes
      • I. Gruppe: Heterobasidii
        • 1. Ordnung: Auriculariales
        • 2. Ordnung: Tremellales
        • 3. Ordnung: Ustilaginales
        • 4. Ordnung: Uredinales
      • II. Gruppe: Holobasidii
        • 1. Ordnung: Gasteromycetales
        • 2. Ordnung: Hymenomycetales
        • 3. Ordnung: Exobasidiales
    • 4. Klasse: Lichenes

Clements & Shear (1931)[edit]

The genera of fungi, [58].

Fungi

  • Phycomycetes
  • Ascomycetes
  • Promycetes
  • Basidiomycetes
  • Deuteromycetes

Gwynne-Vaughan & Barnes (1937)[edit]

The Structure and Development of the Fungi, [59].

Fungi

  • Class Phycomycetes
    • Archimycetes
    • Oomycetes
    • Zygomycetes
  • Class Ascomycetes
    • Plectomycetes
    • Discomycetes
    • Pyrenomycetes
  • Class Basidiomycetes
    • Hemibasidiomycetes
    • Protobasidiomycetes
    • Autobasidiomycetes
  • Class Fungi imperfecti (Deuteromycetes)

Smith (1938)[edit]

Cryptogamic botany, vol. 1, [60].

  • Division Myxothallophyta
    • Class Myxomycetae
    • Class Phytomyxinae
    • Class Acrasieae
  • Division Eumycetae
    • Class Phycomycetae
    • Class Ascomycetae
    • Class Basidiomycetae
    • Class Fungi imperfecti

Skinner et al. (1947)[edit]

Skinner, C.E., Emmons, C.W., Tsuchiya, H.M. 1947. Henrici's molds, yeasts, and actinomycetes : a handbook for students of bacteriology. 2nd ed. New York: J. Wiley & Sons, Inc., [61].

Fungi

Barkley (1949)[edit]

Barkley, Fred A. "Un esbozo de clasificación de los organismos." Revista de la Facultad Nacional de Agronomia, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín. 10: 83–103, [62].

  • Mychota (Monera, Anucleobionta)
  • Protista
    • Euthallophyta
      • Rhodophyta
      • Chrysophyta
      • Pyrrophyta
      • Euglenophyta
      • Gonidiophyta
      • Charophyta
      • Phaeophyta
      • Myxophyta (Myxogasteres, Mycetozoa)
        • Exosporeae
        • Endosporeae
      • Mycophyta (Inophyta)
        • Phycomycetae (Siphonomycetae)
        • Ascomycetae
        • Basidlomycetae
    • Protozoa
    • Parazoa
  • Euplanta
  • Euanimalia

Jahn & Jahn (1949)[edit]

Jahn, T.L. and F. F. Jahn, 1949. How to know the Protozoa. Brown, Dubuque, lowa.

Bessey (1950)[edit]

Morphology and taxonomy of fungi, [63].

  • Phylum Protozoa
    • Class Sarcodina (= Rhizopoda)
      • Subclass Mycetozoa
        • Order Myxogastrales (= Myxomycetes, Myxogastres) true slime molds
        • Order Acrasiales
        • Order Plasmodiophorales
        • Order Labyrinthulales
  • True Fungi
    • Lower Fungi
    • Class Phycomyceteae
    • Higher Fungi (Phylum Carpomyceteae)
      • Class Ascomyceteae
      • Class Basidiomyceteae
      • Class Fungi Imperfecti

Copeland (1956)[edit]

The classification of lower organisms, [64].

Chadefaud & Emberger (1960)[edit]

Chadefaud, M. & Emberger, L. (éds.). Traité de botanique systématique. Masson et Cie., Paris.

  • Tome I. Les végétaux non vasculaires (Cryptogamie), par M. Chadefaud, 1960, 1 vol. de 1016 pages, [65]
  • Tome II. Les végétaux vasculaires, par L. Emberger, 1960, deux fascicules, 1540 pages, [66], [67]


Monde vivant [Tome 1]

  • Protocaryotes (= Schizophytes)
  • Eucaryotes
    • Algues Eucaryotes (= Phycophytes) [incl. Labyrinthulides]
    • Champignons (= Mycophytes)
      • Mycomycophytes (= Amastigomycètes)
        • Ascomycètes
        • Basidiomycètes
        • Zygomycètes
      • Phycomycophytes (= Mastigomycètes)
        • Phycomycètes
          • dimastigiés
          • opisthomastigiés
          • prosomastigiés
        • Myxomycètes
          • Plasmodiophorales, Acrasiales, Cératiomyxales, Myxogastrales
        • Trichomycètes
          • Amoebidiales, Eccrinales, Harpellales
    • Plantes a cormus, Plantes supérieures, Cormophytes, ou Archégoniates [= Embryophyta Engler 1892]
    • Animaux, ou Zoaires (Protozoaires, Métazoaires)

Alexopoulos (1962)[edit]

Alexopoulos, C. J. 1962. Introductory Mycology, 2nd ed., John Wiley & Sons, New York, [68] (1st ed.: 1952, [69].)

Alexopoulos, C. J. & E. S. Beneke. 1962. Laboratory manual for introductory Mycology. Minneapolis, Burgess. 199 p., [70].

Hawker (1966)[edit]

Hawker, L. E. (1966). Fungi: an introduction. London: Hutchinson, [71].

Fungi

  • Lower Fungi (Phycomycetes)
    • Uniflagellatae
      • Class Chytridiomycetes
      • Class Hyphochytridiomycetes
      • Class Plasmodiophoromycetes
    • Biflagellatae
      • Class Oomycetes
    • Aplanatae
      • Class Zygomycetes
      • Class Trichomycetes
  • Higher Fungi
    • Class Ascomycetes
    • Class Basidiomycetes

Whittaker (1969)[edit]

New Concepts of Kingdoms of Organisms, [72].

  • Kingdom Monera
  • Kingdom Protista
  • Kingdom Plantae
  • Kingdom Fungi
    • Subkingdom Gymnomycota
      • Phylum Myxomycota
      • Phylum Acrasiomycota
      • Phylum Labyrinthulomycota
    • Subkingdom Dimastigomycota
      • Phylum Oomycota
    • Subkingdom Eumycota
      • Branch Opisthomastigomycota
        • Phylum Chytridiomycota
      • Branch Amastigomycota
        • Phylum Zygomycota
        • Phylum Ascomycota
        • Phylum Basidiomycota
  • Kingdom Animalia

Stevenson (1970)[edit]

The Biology of Fungi, Bacteria and Viruses, 2nd ed., [73].

  • Division Mycota
    • Class Chytridiomycetes
    • Class Oomycetes
    • Class Zygomycetes
    • Class Ascomycetes
    • Class Basidiomycetes
    • Class Deuteromycetes, or Fungi Imperfecti
  • "Orders of uncertain affinity combining fungal and simple animal characters"
    • Order Acrasiales
    • Order Myxomycetes or Mycetozoa
    • Order Plasmodiophorales

Ainsworth et al. (1973)[edit]

The Fungi: An Advanced Treatise, 5 vols., 1965-1973.

  • Ainsworth, G. C. & Sussman, A. S. (eds). Vol. I (The fungal cell), 1965. Vol. II (The fungal organism), 1965. Vol. III (The fungal population).
  • Ainsworth, G. C., Sparrow, F. K. & Sussman, A. S. (eds). Vol. IV A (A taxonomic review with keys. Ascomycetes and Fungi Imperfecti), 1973, [74]. Vol. IV B (A taxonomic review with keys. Basidiomycetes and Lower Fungi), 1973, [75]. From Sharma (1989), [76], Barr (2001), [77].

Fungi

  • Division Myxomycota
    • Class Acrasiomycetes
    • Class Labyrinthulales
    • Class Myxomycetes
    • Class Plasmodiophoromycetes [?]
  • Division Eumycota
    • Subdivision Mastigomycotina
      • Class Chytridiomycetes
      • Class Hyphochytriomycetes
      • Class Plasmodiophoromycetes
      • Class Oomycetes
    • Subdivision Zygomycotina
      • Class Zygomycetes
      • Class Trichomycetes
    • Subdivision Ascomycotina
      • Class Hemiascomycetes
      • Class Loculoascomycetes
      • Class Plectomycetes
      • Class Laboulbeniomycetes
      • Class Pyrenomycetes
      • Class Discomycetes
    • Subdivision Basidiomycotina
      • Class Teliomycetes
      • Class Hymenomycetes
      • Class Gasteromycetes
    • Subdivision Deuteromycotina
      • Class Blastomycetes
      • Class Hyphomycetes
      • Class Coelomycetes

Olive (1975)[edit]

Olive, L. (1975). The mycetozoans. Academic Press, New York, [78].

Kingdom Fungi

Kingdom Protista

Whittaker & Margulis (1978)[edit]

Whittaker, R. H. & Margulis, L. (1978). Protist classification and the kingdoms of organisms. Biosystems 10, 3–18.

[Note: "form-superphyla" or "form-phyla are “frankly polyphyletic groupings”.]

Alexopoulos & Mims (1979)[edit]

Introductory Mycology, 3rd ed, [79].

Superkingdom Eukaryonta

  • Kingdom Myceteae
    • Division Gymnomycota
      • Subdivision Acrasiogymnomycotina
        • Class Acrasiomycetes
      • Subdivision Plasmodiogymnomycotina
        • Class Protosteliomycetes
        • Class Myxomycetes
    • Division Mastigomycota
      • Subdivision Haplomastigomycotina
        • Class Chytridiomycetes
        • Class Hyphochytridiomycetes
        • Class Plasmodiophoromycetes
      • Subdivision Diplomastigomycotina
        • Class Oomycetes
    • Division Amastigomycota
      • Subdivision Zygomycotina
      • Subdivision Ascomycotina
      • Subdivision Basidiomycotina
      • Subdivision Deuteromycotina

Cavalier-Smith (1981)[edit]

Cavalier-Smith, T. (1981). Eukaryote kingdoms: seven or nine?. Biosystems, 14(3), 461-481, [80].

Nine eukaryote kingdoms proposal [p. 462]

  • Superkingdom Eukaryota
    • Kingdom 1. Eufungi
    • Kingdom 2. Ciliofungi
    • Kingdom 3. Animalia
    • Kingdom 4. Biliphyta
    • Kingdom 5. Viridiplantae
    • Kingdom 6. Euglenozoa
    • Kingdom 7. Protozoa
    • Kingdom 8. Cryptophyta
    • Kingdom 9. Chromophyta


Five eukaryote kingdoms proposal [p. 476-477]

  • Superkingdom Eukaryota
    • Kingdom 1. Fungi (Ciliofungi + Eufungi)
    • Kingdom 2. Chromista (Cryptophyta + Chromophyta)
    • Kingdom 3. Plantae (Viridiplantae + Biliphyta)
    • Kingdom 4. Protista (Euglenozoa + Protozoa)
    • Kingdom 5. Animalia


Seven eukaryote kingdoms proposal [p. 478]

  • Superkingdom Eukaryota
    • Kingdom Fungi
      • Subkingdom Eufungi
        • Phylum Hemiascomycota
        • Phylum Ustomycota
        • Phylum Zygomycota
        • Phylum Ascomycota
        • Phylum Uredomycota
        • Phylum Basidiomycota
      • Incertae sedis: Deuteromycetes
    • Subkingdom Ciliofungi
      • Phylum Chytridiomycota
        • Class Chytridiomycetes (excluding Blastocladiales)
      • Phylum Allomycota
        • Class Blastocladiales
    • Kingdom Viridiplantae
    • Kingdom Biliphyta
    • Kingdom Chromista
    • Kingdom Animalia
    • Kingdom Euglenozoa
    • Kingdom Protozoa

Parker et al. (1982)[edit]

Parker, S. P. (ed.). 1982. Synopsis and classification of living organisms. 2 vols. McGraw-Hill, New York, [81], [82]. See Brands (1989-2005), [83].

Superkingdom Prokaryotae

Superkingdom Eukaryotae

  • Kingdom Plantae
    • Subkingdom Thallobionta
      • Division Rhodophycota
      • Division Chromophycota
      • Division Euglenophycota
      • Division Chlorophycota
      • Division Myxomycota
        • Class Acrasiomycetes
        • Class Myxomycetes
        • Class Protosteliomycetes
        • Class Plasmodiophoromycetes
      • Division Eumycota
        • Subdivision Mastigomycotina
          • Class Chytridiomycetes
          • Class Hyphochytridiomycetes
          • Class Oomycetes
        • Subdivision Heterokontimycotina
          • Class Hyphochytriomycetes
          • Class Oomycetes
          • Family Labyrinthulaceae
          • Order Thraustochytriales
        • Subdivision Zygomycotina
        • Subdivision Ascomycotina
        • Genus Helminthosporium
        • Subdivision Basidiomycotina
        • Subdivision Deuteromycotina
        • Genus Phlebia
        • Genus Favolus
        • Genus Lichina
    • Subkingdom Embryobionta
    • Genus Echites
  • Kingdom Protista (Haeckel, 1866)
    • Phylum Euprotista [“containing the great majority of protistans”]
    • Phylum Gymnomyxa
      • Subphylum Mycetozoa
      • Subphylum Plasmodiophorina
      • Subphylum Labyrinthulina
  • Kingdom Animalia 1758

[Note: this classification is redundant for some groups.]

Kreger-van Rij (1984)[edit]

Kreger-van Rij, N.J.W. 1984. The yeasts: a taxonomic study. 3rd ed. Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam, [84]. (5th ed.: 2011, [85].)

[Classification of the yeasts in the Eumycota]

Benton (1993)[edit]

Benton, M. J. 1993. The fossil record 2. London: Chapman & Hall, [86].

Alexopoulos, Mims & Blackwell (1996)[edit]

Introductory mycology, 4th ed.

"Fungi" [polyphyletic group]

  • Kingdom Fungi
    • Phylum Chytridiomycota
    • Phylum Zygomycota
    • Phylum Ascomycota
    • Phylum Basidiomycota
  • Kingdom Stramenopila [including some algae]
    • Phylum Oomycota
    • Phylum Hyphochytriomycota
    • Phylum Labyrinthulomycota
  • Kingdom Protista
    • Phylum Plasmodiophoromycota
    • Phylum Dictyosteliomycota
    • Phylum Acrasiomycota
    • Phylum Myxomycota

Cavalier-Smith (1998, 2001)[edit]

Cavalier-Smith, T. (1998). A revised six-kingdom system of life, [87].

Cavalier-Smith, T. (2001). What are Fungi? In: McLaughlin DJ, McLaughlin EJ, Lemke P (eds), The Mycota. Vol. VII. Part A. Systematics and Evolution. 1st ed. Springer Verlag, Berlin, pp. 6, 12.


Empire or Superkingdom 1. Prokaryota

Empire or Superkingdom 2. Eukaryota

  • Kingdom 1. Protozoa Goldfuss 1818 stat. nov. Owen 1858 em. [almost certainly paraphyletic]
  • Kingdom 2. Animalia Linnaeus 1758 em. Cavalier-Smith 1995 (unnecessary synonym Metazoa Haeckel 1874)
  • Kingdom 3. Fungi Linnaeus 1753 stat. nov. Necker 1783 em. Cavalier-Smith 1998
    • Subkingdom 1. Eomycota Cavalier-Smith 1998
      • Phylum 1. Archemycota Cavalier-Smith 1998
        • Subphylum 1. Dictyomycotina Cavalier-Smith 1998
          • Class 1. Chytridiomycetes de Bary 1863 stat. nov. Sparrow 1958 em. Cavalier-Smith 1981 (Chytridiales, Monoblepharidales, Spizellomycetales, Neocallimastigales)
          • Class 2. Enteromycetes Cavalier-Smith 1998 em. (Eccrinales)
          • Subphylum 2. Melanomycotina Cavalier-Smith 1998
            • Infraphylum 1. Allomycotina Cavalier-Smith 1998
              • Class 1. Allomycetes Cavalier-Smith 1998 (Blastocladiales, Coelomomycetales)
            • Infraphylum 2. Zygomycotina Cavalier-Smith 1998
              • Superclass 1. Eozygomycetia Cavalier-Smith 1998
                • Class 1. Bolomycetes Cavalier-Smith 1998 (Basidiobolus)
                • Class 2. Glomomycetes Cavalier-Smith 1998 (Endogonales, Glomales)
              • Superclass 2. Neozygomycetia Cavalier-Smith 1998
                • Class 1. Zygomycetes Sachs ex Bennett and Thistleton-Dyer 1875 stat. nov. Winter 1899 em. Cavalier-Smith 1998 (Mucorales, Mortierellales, Dimargaritales, Kickxellales)
                • Class 2. Zoomycetes Cavalier-Smith 1998 (Entomophthorales, Zoopagales, Harpellales, Asellariales, Laboulbeniales, Pyxidiophorales)
      • Phylum 2. Microsporidia Balbiani 1882 stat. nov. Weiser 1977
        • Class 1. Minisporea Cavalier-Smith 1993 (Minisporida Sprague 1972, e.g., Chytridiopsis, Buxtehudia, Hessea)
        • Class 2. Microsporea Corliss & Levine 1963 (Pleistophorida Stempell 1906, e.g., Pleistophora,Amblyospora, Glugea, Encephalitozoon; Nosematida Labbé 1899, e.g., Nosema, Enterocytozoon, Spraguea, Caudospora)
    • Subkingdom 2. Neomycota Cavalier-Smith 1998
      • Phylum 1. Ascomycota Berkeley 1857 stat. nov. Cavalier-Smith 1987
        • Subphylum 1. Hemiascomycotina Brefeld 1891 stat. nov. Ainsworth 1966
          • Class 1. Taphrinomycetes Cavalier-Smith 1998 (e.g., Taphrina, Protomyces, Neolecta,Schizosaccharomyces, Pneumocystis)
          • Class 2. Geomycetes Cavalier-Smith 1998 (Geosiphon)
          • Class 3. Endomycetes von Arx ex Cavalier-Smith 1998 (e.g., Dipodascopsis, Candida, Saccharomyces)
        • Subphylum 2. Euascomycotina Engler 1897 stat. nov. Ainsworth 1966
          • Class 1. Discomycetes Fries 1836 stat. nov. Ainsworth 1966 (e.g., Peziza, Tuber, Morchella, Rhytisma; most lichen fungi, e.g., Calicium, Coniocybe, Usnea, Lecanora, Peltigera, Xanthoria, Cladonia)
          • Class 2. Pyrenomycetes Fries 1821 stat. nov. Ainsworth 1966 (e.g., Neurospora, Sordaria, Ophiostoma, Claviceps, Nectria, Xylaria, Daldinia, Spathulospora; pyrenocarpous lichen fungi, e.g., Verrucaria)
          • Class 3. Loculomycetes Cavalier-Smith 1998 (e.g., Loculoascomycetidae Luttrell 1955, e.g., Dothidea, Pleospora, Venturia; ascolocular lichens, e.g., Arthonia, Lecanactis)
          • Class 4. Plectomycetes Gwynne-Vaughan 1922 stat. nov. Ainsworth 1966 (e.g., Penicillium, Aspergillus, Eurotium, Erysiphe; includes most fungi imperfecti)
      • Phylum 2. Basidiomycota de Bary 1866 em. auct. stat. nov. Moore 1980
        • Subphylum 1. Septomycotina Cavalier-Smith 1998
          • Class 1. Septomycetes Cavalier-Smith 1998 (Erythrobasidiales, Sporidiales, Septobasidiales, Uredinales)
        • Subphylum 2. Orthomycotina Cavalier-Smith 1998
          • Superclass 1. Hemibasidiomycetia Engler 1897 stat. nov. Cavalier-Smith 1998
            • Class 1. Ustomycetes Moore 1980 (Ustilaginales, Tilletiales)
          • Superclass 2. Hymenomycetia Fries 1821 stat. nov. em. Cavalier-Smith 1998
            • Class 1. Gelimycetes Cavalier-Smith 1998 (Tremellales, Dacrymycetales, Auriculariales)
            • Class 2. Homobasidiomycetes Patouillard 1900 (e.g., Clavaria, Tulasnella, Thanatephorus, Agaricus, Boletus, Coprinus, Fomes; incl. gasteromycetes, e.g., Phallus, Lycoperdon, Cyathus)
  • Kingdom 4. Plantae Haeckel 1866 em. Cavalier-Smith 1981
  • Kingdom 5. Chromista Cavalier-Smith 1981 em.

Kirk et al. (2001)[edit]

Kirk, P.M. et al. (2001). Dictionary of the Fungi. 9th ed. See Brands, S.J. (1989-2016), [88].

Eukaryota

Hausmann et al. (2003)[edit]

Hausmann, K., N. Hulsmann, R. Radek. Protistology. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchshandlung, Stuttgart, 2003.

Empire Eukaryota Chatton, 1925 (= Eukarya)

Adl et al. (2005)[edit]

The new higher level classification of eukaryotes with emphasis on the taxonomy of protists, [89].

Eukaryota

  • Opisthokonta Cavalier-Smith, 1987, emend. Cavalier-Smith and Chao, 1995, emend. Adl et al., 2005
    • Fungi Linnaeus 1753, emend. Cavalier-Smith, 1981, 1987
      • Basidiomycota de Barry 1866, emend. Schaffer, 1975
      • Urediniomycetes Swann and Taylor, 1995
      • Ustilaginomycetes Bower, Oberw, and Va´nky, 1997
      • Ascomycota Berkeley, 1857
      • Microsporidia Balbiani, 1882
      • Glomeromycota Schüssler et al., 2001 [Glomales Morton and Benny, 1990; Glomomycetes Cavalier-Smith, 1998]
      • Zygomycota Fischer, 1892, emend. Benjamin, 1979, emend. Benny et al., 2001
      • Chytridiomycetes de Barry, 1863, emend. Sparrow, 1958, emend. Cavalier-Smith, 1981
    • Mesomycetozoa Mendoza et al., 2002, emend. Adl et al., 2005 [Choanozoa Cavalier-Smith, 1981]
    • Choanomonada Kent, 1880
    • Metazoa Haeckel, 1874

Webster & Weber (2007)[edit]

Introduction to Fungi, 3rd ed.

  • Fungi (Eumycota)
    • Chytridiomycota
      • Chytridiomycetes
    • Zygomycota
      • Zygomycetes
      • Trichomycetes
    • Ascomycota
      • Archiascomycetes
      • Hemiascomycetes
      • Plectomycetes
      • Hymenoascomycetes
        • Pyrenomycetes
        • Erysiphales
        • Pezizales
        • Helotiales
        • Lecanorales
      • Loculoascomycetes (= Ascoloculares or Dothideomycetidae)
    • Basidiomycota
      • Homobasidiomycetes
      • Heterobasidiomycetes
      • Urediniomycetes
      • Ustilaginomycetes (smut fungi and their allies)

Hibbett et al. (2007)[edit]

A higher-level phylogenetic classification of the Fungi, [90].

Kingdom Fungi T. L. Jahn & F. F. Jahn 1949, ex R. T. Moore 1980

  • Phylum Chytridiomycota M. J. Powell, phylum nov.
  • Phylum Neocallimastigomycota M. J. Powell, phylum nov.
  • Phylum Blastocladiomycota T. Y. James, Mycologia 98: 867 (2007) [‘2006’].
  • Phylum Microsporidia Balbiani, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 95: 1168 (1882).
  • Phylum Glomeromycota C. Walker & A. Schuessler, in Schüßler et al., Mycol. Res. 105: 1416 (2001).
  • Subphyla incertae sedis (not assigned to any phylum)
    • Subphylum Mucoromycotina Benny, subphylum nov.
    • Subphylum Entomophthoromycotina Humber, subphylum nov.
    • Subphylum Zoopagomycotina Benny, subphylum nov.
    • Subphylum Kickxellomycotina Benny, subphylum nov.
  • Subkingdom Dikarya Hibbett, T. Y. James & Vilgalys, subregnum nov.
    • Phylum Ascomycota Caval.-Sm., Biol. Rev. 73: 247 (1998),
    • Phylum Basidiomycota R. T. Moore, Bot. Mar. 23: 371 (1980).

Kirk et al. (2008)[edit]

Kirk, P.M.; Cannon, P.F.; Minter, D.W.; Stalpers, J.A. (2008). Dictionary of the Fungi. 10th ed. Wallingford: CABI, [91].

Eukaryota, kingdoms of "fungi"

Margulis & Chapman (2009)[edit]

Kingdoms & Domains, 4th ed.

Superkingdom Eukarya

  • Kingdom Protoctista
    • Subkingdom Opisthokonta [paraphyletic]
      • Phylum Blastocladiomycota
      • Phylum Chytridiomycota
      • Phylum Choanomastigota
  • Kingdom Fungi
    • Phylum Microspora
    • Phylum Zygomycota
      • Zoopagales
      • Entomophthorales
      • Mucorales
    • Phylum Glomeromycota
    • Phylum Ascomycota
      • Laboulbeniomycetae
      • Loculoascomycetae
      • Euascomycetae
    • Phylum Basidiomycota
      • Homobasidiomycetae
      • Heterobasidiomycetae
    • Phylum Lichenes (polyphyletic)
  • Kingdom Plantae

Adl et al. (2012)[edit]

Adl, S.M. et al. (2012). The revised classification of eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 59 (5): 429–514, [92].

Opisthokonta Cavalier-Smith 1987, emend. Adl et al. 2005

Ruggiero et al. (2015)[edit]

Ruggiero, M.A., Gordon, D.P., Orrell, T.M., Bailly, N., Bourgoin, T., Brusca, R.C., Cavalier-Smith, T., Guiry, M. D. & Kirk, P. M. (2015). A Higher Level Classification of All Living Organisms. PLoS ONE 10(4): e0119248, [93].

References[edit]

  • Ainsworth, G.C. (1976). Introduction to the history of mycology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • David, J. C. (2002). A preliminary catalogue of the names of fungi above the rank of order. Constancea 83: 1–30, [94].