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Corynaea crassa showing adaptations to parasitism


Taxonavigation: Santalales 
Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Ordo: Santalales

Familia: Balanophoraceae
Genera: Balanophora – Chlamydophytum – Corynaea – Dactylanthus – Ditepalanthus – Exorhopala – Hachettea – Helosis – Langsdorffia – Lathrophytum – Lophophytum – Mystropetalon – Ombrophytum – Rhopalocnemis – Sarcophyte – Scybalium – Thonningia


Balanophoraceae L.C. & A. Rich. Mém. Mus. Hist. Nat. 8: 429. (1822) nom. cons.


  • Heterotypic
    • Mystropetalaceae (Engl.) Takht., Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 75(5): 698. (1990)

Note: Su et al. (2015) prefer to segregate Dactylanthus, Hachettea and Mystropetalon into Mystropetalaceae, but this has not gained wider acceptance and so a conservative position is adopted here.


  • Richard, L.C.M. 1822. Mémoires du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle 8: 429.
  • Nickrent, D.L., Soltis, D.E., Colwell, E.A., Wolfe, A.D., Young, N.D., Steiner, K.E., & de Pamphilis, C.W. 1998. Molecular phylogenetic and evolutionary studies of parasitic plants. Pp. 211-241, in Soltis, D. E., Soltis, P. S., & Doyle, J. J. (eds), Molecular Systematics of Plants II: DNA Sequencing. Kluwer, Boston.
  • Nickrent, D.L., Malécot, V., Vidal-Russell, R. & Der, J.P. 2010. A revised classification of Santalales. Taxon 59(2): 538–558. DOI: 10.1002/tax.592019 JSTOR PDF. Reference page
  • Nickrent, D.L. 1997-2019. The Parasitic Plant Connection, Department of Plant Biology, Southern Illinois University Carbondale. Online. Reference page
  • Hassler, M. 2019. Balanophoraceae. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2019. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2019 Jan. 25. Reference page
  • Lohmüller, F.A. 2005. The Botanical System of the Plants[1]
  • Su, H.J., Hu, J.M., Anderson, F.E., Der, J.P. & Nickrent, D.L. 2015. Phylogenetic relationships of Santalales with insights into the origins of holoparasitic Balanophoraceae. Taxon 64(3): 491-506. DOI: 10.12705/643.2 PDF from ResearchGate Reference page

Vernacular names[edit]

日本語: ツチトリモチ科
中文: 蛇菰科
Wikimedia Commons For more multimedia, look at Balanophoraceae on Wikimedia Commons.