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Corynaea crassa showing adaptations to parasitism


Taxonavigation: Santalales 
Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Ordo: Santalales

Familia: Balanophoraceae
Genera: Balanophora – Chlamydophytum – Corynaea – Dactylanthus – Ditepalanthus – Exorhopala – Hachettea – Helosis – Langsdorffia – Lathrophytum – Lophophytum – Mystropetalon – Ombrophytum – Rhopalocnemis – Sarcophyte – Scybalium – Thonningia


Balanophoraceae L.C. & A. Rich. Mém. Mus. Hist. Nat. 8: 429. (1822) nom. cons.


  • Heterotypic
    • Mystropetalaceae (Engl.) Takht., Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 75(5): 698. (1990)

Note: Su et al. (2015) prefer to segregate Dactylanthus, Hachettea and Mystropetalon into Mystropetalaceae, but this has not gained wider acceptance and so a conservative position is adopted here.


  • Richard, L.C.M. 1822. Mémoires du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle 8: 429.
  • Nickrent, D.L., Soltis, D.E., Colwell, E.A., Wolfe, A.D., Young, N.D., Steiner, K.E., & de Pamphilis, C.W. 1998. Molecular phylogenetic and evolutionary studies of parasitic plants. Pp. 211-241, in Soltis, D. E., Soltis, P. S., & Doyle, J. J. (eds), Molecular Systematics of Plants II: DNA Sequencing. Kluwer, Boston.
  • Nickrent, D.L., Malécot, V., Vidal-Russell, R. & Der, J.P. 2010. A revised classification of Santalales. Taxon 59(2): 538–558. DOI: 10.1002/tax.592019 JSTOR PDF. Reference page
  • Nickrent, D.L. 1997-2019. The Parasitic Plant Connection, Department of Plant Biology, Southern Illinois University Carbondale. Online. Reference page
  • Hassler, M. 2019. Balanophoraceae. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World (2019). In: Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., Nieukerken E. van, Zarucchi, J., Penev L., eds. 2019. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2019 Jan. 25.
  • Lohmüller, F.A. 2005. The Botanical System of the Plants[1]
  • Su, H.J., Hu, J.M., Anderson, F.E., Der, J.P. & Nickrent, D.L. 2015. Phylogenetic relationships of Santalales with insights into the origins of holoparasitic Balanophoraceae. Taxon 64(3): 491-506. DOI: 10.12705/643.2 PDF from ResearchGate Reference page

Vernacular names[edit]

日本語: ツチトリモチ科
中文: 蛇菰科
Wikimedia Commons For more multimedia, look at Balanophoraceae on Wikimedia Commons.