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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Xenacoelomorpha
Subphylum: Acoelomorpha
Classis: Acoela
Familiae (21): Actinoposthiidae – Anaperidae – Antigonariidae – Antroposthiidae – Childiidae –Convolutidae – Dakuidae – Diopisthoporidae – Hallangiidae – Haploposthiidae –Hofsteniidae – Isodiametridae – Mecynostomidae – Nadinidae – Otocelididae –Paratomellidae – Polycanthiidae – Proporidae – Sagittiferidae – Solenofilomorphidae – Taurididae


Acoela Uljanin, 1870


  • Achatz, J.G. et al. (online first, 2012): The Acoela: on their kind and kinships, especially with nemertodermatids and xenoturbellids (Bilateria incertae sedis). Organisms Diversity & Evolution, abstract and pdf
  • Achatz, J.G.; Hooge, M.; Wallberg, A.; Jondelius, U.; Tyler, S. 2010: Systematic revision of acoels with 9+0 sperm ultrastructure (Convolutida) and the influence of sexual conflict on morphology. Journal of zoological systematics and evolutionary research, 48: 9–32. DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0469.2009.00555.x
  • Egger, B. et al. 2009: To be or not to be a flatworm: the acoel controversy. PLoS ONE, 4(5): e5502. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0005502
  • Faubel, A.; Kolasa, J. 1978: On the anatomy and morphology of a freshwater species of Acoela (Turbellaria): Limnoposthia polonica (Kolasa et Faubel, 1974). Bulletin de L'Academie Polonaise des Sciences serie des sciences biologiques, 26: 393–397.
  • Hooge, M.D.; Haye, P.A.; Tyler, S.; Litvaitis, M.K.; Kornfield, I. 2002: Molecular systematics of the Acoela (Acoelomorpha, Platyhelminthes) and its concordance with morphology. Molecular phylogenetics and evolution, 24: 333–342. DOI: 10.1016/S1055-7903(02)00236-1 PDF
  • Hooge, M.D. & Tyler, S. 2003. Two new acoels (Acoela, Platyhelminthes) from the central coast of California. Zootaxa 131: 1–14. Abstract & excerpt Reference page
  • Kånneby, T.; Jondelius, U. 2013: Four new species of Acoela from Chile. Zootaxa 3736(5): 471–485. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3736.5.3 Reference page
  • Kolasa, J.; Faubel, A. 1974: A preliminary description of a freshwater Acoela (Turbellaria): Oligochoerus polonicus nov. spec. Boll. Zool., 41: 81–85.
  • Philippe, H. et al. 2011: Acoelomorph flatworms are deuterostomes related to Xenoturbella. Nature, 470: 255–258. DOI: 10.1038/nature09676
  • Ruiz-Trillo, I. et al. 1999: Acoel flatworms: earliest extant bilaterian metazoans, not members of Platyhelminthes. Science, 283: 1919–1923. DOI: 10.1126/science.283.5409.1919
  • Schockaert, E.R.; Hooge, M.; Sluys, R.; Schilling, S.; Tyler, S.; Artois, T. 2008: Global diversity of free living flatworms (Platyhelminthes, “Turbellaria”) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia, 595: 41–48. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4020-8259-7_5
  • Zauchner, T., Salvenmoser, W. & Egger, B.. 2015. A cultivable acoel species from the Mediterranean, Aphanostoma pisae sp. nov. (Acoela, Acoelomorpha). Zootaxa 3941(3): 401–413. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3941.3.6. Reference page

Vernacular names[edit]

polski: wirki bezjelitowe
Wikimedia Commons For more multimedia, look at Acoela on Wikimedia Commons.