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Terms and abbreviations

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  • autonym. An automatically generated infrageneric or infraspecific name.


  • comb. inval. (combinatio invalidum). A combination not validly published according to ICBN.
  • comb. illeg. (combinatio illegitimum). A validly published name that is not in accordance with one or more rules in ICBN.
  • comb. superfl. (combinatio superfluum). Superfluous combination, creating an illegitime homonym.


  • et al. or & al. ( et alii (Maskulinum), et aliae (Femininum) oder et alia (Neutrum)). Latin for: and others, used to indicate other authors of a published work.


  • in litt. (in litteris). In correspondence.
  • in obs. (in observatio) In observation.
  • in sched. (in schdula). On a herbarium sheet.
  • ined. (ineditus). Unpublished.


  • nom. cons. (nomen conservandum). (1) A name of a family, genus or species [or infraspecies] ruled as legitimate and with precedence over other specified names even though it may have been illegitimate when published or lack priority (Art. 14.1-14.7). (2) A name for which its type, orthography, or gender has been fixed by the conservation process (Art. 14.1, 14.9-14.11).
  • nom. cons. prop. (nomen conservandum propositus). Proposed conserved name.
  • nom. dub. (nomen dubium). A dubious name without certain attribution.
  • nom. illeg. (nomen illegitimum). A validly published name that is not in accordance with one or more rules (Art. 6.4), principally those on superfluity (Art. 52) and homonymy (Art. 53 and 54).
  • nom. inadmiss. (nomen inadmissibile). Illegitime renaming of the type.
  • nom. inval. (nomen invalidum). A name not validly published according to Art. 29-45 or H.9 (Art. 6.2).
  • nom. nov. (nomen novum). A nomen novum is a new combination for which an author is obliged to substitute a new specific epithet or a new subspecific epithet as a result of homonymy.
  • nom. nud. (nomen nudum). A "naked name" lacking formal publication.
  • nom. rej. (nomen rejiciendum). A name rejected in favour of a name conserved under Art. 14 or a name ruled as rejected under Art. 56 (App. II, III, IV, and V).
  • nom. rej. prop. (nomen rejiciendum propositus) Proposed rejected name.
  • nom. superfl. (nomen superfluum). Superfluous name.
  • non design. (non designatus). Not designated.


  • opus utiq. oppr./opera utiq. oppr. (Opus/Opera utique oppressa) Works, ruled as suppressed. In these names, in specified ranks, are not validly published. "Opus" is singular, "opera" is plural.
  • orth. cons. Conserved orthographic variant.
  • orth. emend. Orthography emended in accordance with ICBN requirements.
  • orth. var. Orthographic variant.


  • p.p. (pro parte). In part.
  • pro hybr. or pro hybrid. (pro hybridus). As hybrid.
  • pro sp. (pro species). As species.


  • rank. The following endings indicate rank in botanical nomenclature:
    • -obiotina = subkingdom
    • -ophytanae = superdivision or superphylum
    • -ophyta = division or phylum
    • -ophytina = subdivision
    • -opsida = class
    • -idae = subclass
    • -anae = superordo
    • -ales = ordo
    • -ineae = subordo
    • -ariae = superfamilia
    • -aceae = familia
    • -indae = supersubfamilia
    • -oideae = subfamilia
    • -odae = supertribus
    • -eae = tribus
    • -odinae = supersubtribus
    • -inae = subtribus


  • sine dign. defin. (sine dignitate definita). Unranked taxa.
  • sphalm. (sphalmate) By mistake, mistakenly.


  • tax. nov. (taxon novum). A new taxon.
  • typ. cons. (typus conservandus). With a conserved type.