Retained as a full family by McKenna and Bell (1997) and Rylands et al. (2000). Goodman et al. (1998) divided the subfamily into subtribes Saguinina, Leontopithecina, Callimiconina and Callitrichina. Groves (2001c:126-7) argued that the correct name for the family/subfamily is Hapalidae/Hapalinae, but this was discussed by Brandon-Jones and Groves (2002), who found that the argument was insecure and re-established Callitrichidae.