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Nuvola apps important.svg This taxon is (or may be) paraphyletic

Unplaced genera: Nanos – Quadricilia


Protozoa Goldfuss, 1817


[Note: in most classifications, Protozoa is currently considered a polyphyletic taxon. Some authors (e.g. Cavalier-Smith) still use it as a paraphyletic taxon, although most taxonomists prefer to use only monophyletic taxa. See Eukaryota for more modern classifications of the groups previously placed here.]

Goldfuss (1820)[edit]

From Handbuch der Zoologie.

Class Protozoa

von Siebold (1848)[edit]

From Lehrbuch der vergleichenden Anatomie der Wirbellosen Thiere.

Phylum Protozoa

Owen (1860)[edit]

From Palæontology or a Systematic Summary of Extinct Animals and Their Geological Relations.

Kingdom Protozoa

Saville-Kent (1880-1882)[edit]

From Saville-Kent, W. (1880-1882). A manual of Infusoria. London, vol. 1 (see p. 211 [1]), vol. 2 and vol. 3.

Sub-kingdom Protozoa

Bütschli (1880-1889)[edit]

From Bütschli, O. (1880–1889). Dr. H.G. Bronn's Klassen und Ordnungen des Thier-Reichs: wissenschaftlich dargestellt in Wort und Bild: wissenschaftlich dargestellt in Wort und Bild. Erster Band: Protozoa. Abt. I, Sarkodina und Sporozoa, 1880-82 [2]. Abt. II, Mastigophora, 1883-87 [3]. Abt. III, Infusoria und System der Radiolaria, 1887-89 [4]. C.F. Winter, Leipzig.

Phylum Protozoa

Claus (1891)[edit]

From Lehrbuch der zoologie.


Doflein (1911)[edit]

From Lehrbuch der Protozoenkunde, 3rd ed, 1911. (1st ed. named Die Protozoen als Parasiten und Krankheitserreger, 1901).


Lühe (1913)[edit]

From Lühe, M. 1913: Erstes Urreich der Tiere. In: Lang A, editor. Handbuch der morphologie der wirbellosen Tiere. Jena: G. Fischer. 416 p.


Hartmann (1919)[edit]

From Hartmann, M. "Allgemeine Morphologie und Physiologie der Protozoen". In: Lehrbuch der Mikrobiologie. Friedberger, E; Pfeiffer, R. [eds.] G. Fischer, 1919, [5], [6].


Calkins (1926)[edit]

From The biology of the Protozoa.

Phylum Protozoa

Jahn & Jahn (1949)[edit]

From Jahn, T.L. and F. F. Jahn, 1949. How to know the Protozoa. Brown, Dubuque, lowa.

Grassé (1952-1994)[edit]

From Grassé, P.-P. (Ed.), 1952-1994. Traité de Zoologie. Vol. 1, pt. I, Protozoaires: Flagellés, 1952. Vol. 1, pt. II, Protozoaires: Rhizopodes, Actinopodes, Sporozoaires, Cnidosporidies, 1953. Vol. 2, pt. I, Infusoires ciliés, 1984. Vol. 2, pt. II, Infusoires ciliés, 1994. Masson, Paris.


Hall (1953)[edit]

From Hall, R.P., 1953. Protozoology. Prentice-Hall, New York, [7]


Kudo (1954)[edit]

From Protozoology.

Phylum Protozoa Goldfuss

Honigberg et al. (1964)[edit]

From Honigberg, B.M., Balamuth, W., Bovee, E.C., Corliss, J.O., Gojdics, M., Hall, R.P., Kudo, R.R., Levine, N.D., Loeblich, A.R.Jr., Weiser, J. and Wenrich, D.H., 1964: A revised classification of the phylum Protozoa. Journal of Protozoology, 11(1), p.7-20, [8], [9].

Phylum Protozoa

Dogiel (1965)[edit]

General protozoology, 2nd ed.

Type Protozoa

  • Subtype Plasmodroma
    • Class Sarcodina
      • Subclass Rhizopoda
        • Order Amoebida
        • Order Piroplasmida
          • Suborder Piroplasmina
          • Suborder Theileriina
        • Order Testacea
        • Order Foraminifera
      • Subclass Heliozoa
        • Order Actinophryda
        • Order Centrohelida
        • Order Desmothoraca
      • Subclass Radiolaria
        • Order Acantharia
        • Order Spumellaria
        • Order Nassellaria
        • Order Phaeodaria
        • Order Sticholoncha
    • Class Mastigophora (= Flagellata)
      • Subclass Phytomastigina
        • Order Chrysomonadida
        • Order Silicoflagellida
        • Order Cryptomonadida
        • Order Heterochloridida
        • Order Chloromonadida
        • Order Euglenida
        • Order Phytomonadida
        • Order Dinoflagellata
      • Subclass Zoomastigina
        • Order Protomonadida
        • Order Diplomonadida
        • Order Polymastigida
        • Order Hypermastigida
      • Subclass Opalinina
    • Class Sporozoa
      • Subclass Gregarina
        • Order Schizogregarinida
        • Order Eugregarinida
      • Subclass Coccidia (= Coccidiomorpha)
        • Order Protococcidia
        • Order Adeleida
        • Order Coccidiida
          • Suborder Eimeriidea
          • Suborder Haemosporidia
    • Class Cnidosporidia
      • Order Myxosporidia
      • Order Microsporidia
      • Order Actinomyxidia
  • Subtype Ciliophora
    • Class Ciliata (= Infusoria)
      • Subclass Holotricha
        • Order Gymnostomata
        • Order Trichostomata
        • Order Hymenostomata
        • Order Astomata
        • Order Apostomata
        • Order Thigmotricha
      • Subclass Spirotricha
        • Order Heterotricha
        • Order Oligotricha
        • Order Tintinnoidea
        • Order Entodiniomorpha
        • Order Ctenostomata
        • Order Hypotricha
      • Subclass Peritricha
        • Order Sessilida
        • Order Mobilida
      • Subclass Chonotricha
      • Subclass Suctoria
  • "Addendum. Groups of uncertain systematic position: (1) Sarcosporidia and (2) Toxoplasmida, both representing groups of Protozoa related to Sarcodina; Biocca (1956) unites them into one class, Toxoplasmatea; (3) Haplosporidia, which probably do not belong to the Protozoa; (4) Anaplasmida, which are not Protozoa but probably represent Rickettsias."

Grell (1968)[edit]

From Grell K.G. (1968): Protozoologie. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 511 pp, [10].


Levine et al. (1980)[edit]

From N. D. Levine; J. O. Corliss; F. E. G. Cox; G. Deroux; J. Grain; B. M. Honigberg; G. F. Leedale; A. R. Loeblich, III; J. Lom; D. Lynn; E. G. Merinfeld; F. C. Page; G. Poljansky; V. Sprague; J. Vavra; and F. G. Wallace (1980). A newly revised classification of the Protozoa. J. Protozool., 27:37–58.[11]

Subkingdom Protozoa

Lee et al. (1985)[edit]

From J.J. Lee, S.H. Hutner and E.C. Bovee, (eds.), An Illustrated Guide to the Protozoa, Society of Protozoologists, 1st ed., 1985. See Fernández-Galiano, 1990, [12].

Subkingdom Protozoa (Goldfuss, 1818) von Siebold, 1846

  • Subphylum Opalinata Corliss & Balamuth, 1963

Cavalier-Smith (1993)[edit]

From Kingdom Protozoa and its 18 phyla.

In Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Protozoa Goldfuss, 1818 stat. nov. Owen 1858/9 emend. Cavalier-Smith, 1987

Cavalier-Smith (1996/97)[edit]

From Amoeboflagellates and mitochondrial cristae in eukaryote evolution: megasystematics of the new protozoan subkingdoms eozoa and neozoa, [13].

Kingdom Protozoa

Cavalier-Smith (1998)[edit]

From A revised six-kingdom system of life

In Empire or Superkingdom Eukaryota
Kingdom Protozoa Goldfuss 1818 stat. nov. Owen 1858 emend.

Lee et al. (2000)[edit]

From Lee, J.J., Leedale, G.F. & Bradbury, P. (2002 dated 2000) An Illustrated Guide to the Protozoa. Lawrence, Kansas, U.S.A: Society of Protozoologists; 2nd ed.


Cavalier-Smith (2002)[edit]

From The phagotrophic origin of eukaryotes and phylogenetic classification of Protozoa.


Cavalier-Smith (2003)[edit]

From Protist phylogeny and the high-level classification of Protozoa, [14].


Cavalier-Smith (2004)[edit]

From Only six kingdoms of life, [15].

Kingdom Protozoa (Cavalier-Smith 2002, 2003)

See also[edit]


Georg August Goldfuss: Ueber die Entwicklungsstufen des Thieres, Nürnberg, Leonhard Schrag (1817) [16].

Vernacular names[edit]

čeština: Prvoci
français: Protozoaires