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Taxonavigation: Cynipoidea

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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Infraclassis: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladus: Endopterygota
Superordo: Hymenopterida
Ordo: Hymenoptera
Subordo: Apocrita
Superfamilia: Cynipoidea

Familia: Cynipidae
Subfamiliae (1 + 1†): Cynipinae - †Hodiernocynipinae


  • Askew, R.R. et al. 2013: Catalogue of parasitoids and inquilines in cynipid oak galls in the West Palaearctic. Zootaxa, 3643(1): 1-133. doi: 10.11646/zootaxa.3643.1.1 reference page 
  • Gómez, J.F.; Nieves-Aldrey, J.L. 2012: Notes on the larval morphology of Pteromalidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) species parasitoids of gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) in Europe. Zootaxa, 3189: 39–55. Preview
  • Kovalev 1994: Palaeontological history, phylogeny and the system of brachycleistogastromorphs and cynipomorphs (Hymenoptera, Brachycleistogastromorpha infraorder n., Cynipomorpha infraorder n.) with description of new fossil and recent families, subfamilies and genera. Entomologicheskoe obozrenie, 73(2): 385-426, 495.
  • Liljeblad, J.; Ronquist, F. 1998: A phylogenetic analysis of higher-level gall wasp relationships (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae). Systematic entomology, 23: 229-252. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-3113.1998.00053.x
  • Melika, G. 2006: Gall wasps of Ukraine. Cynipidae. Vestnik zoologii, supplement 21 (2 volumes). ISSN: 0084-5604
  • Rokas, A.; Nylander, J.A.A.; Ronquist, F.; Stone, G.N. 2002: A maximum-likelihood analysis of eight phylogenetic markers in gallwasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae): implications for insect phylogenetic studies. Molecular phylogenetics and evolution, 22: 206-219. doi: 10.1006/mpev.2001.1032
  • Ronquist, F.; Liljeblad, J. 2001: Evolution of the gall wasp–host plant association. Evolution, 55: 2503–2522. doi: 10.1111/j.0014-3820.2001.tb00765.x PDF

Vernacular names[edit]

Deutsch: Gallwespen
English: Gall wasps
עברית: צרעת העפצים
Nederlands: Echte galwespen
norsk bokmål: Gallvepser
polski: Galasówkowate
svenska: Gallsteklar
中文: 癭蜂